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EXHIBIT 58

CHICAGO, ILL., June 25, 1946.

Senator CLAUDE PEPPER,

U. S. Senate, Washington, D. C.: I desire to urge passage of S. 1318.

CURTIS W. REESE, Dean, Abraham Lincoln Centre.

EXHIBIT 59

EATON MANUFACTURING Co.,

Cleveland, Ohio, September 14, 1945. Senator CLAUDE PEPPER,

Senate Office Building, Washington 25, D. C. MY DEAR SENATOR PEPPER: Thank you for your introduction of S. 1318 to extend Lanham funds for day-care centers. I have written to Senator Burton and to Congressmen Bolton, Crosser, and Feighan on behalf of the Northeast Day Care Advisory Committee, a local committee which contributes to a nearby day-care center, asking their support and interest in the Pepper bill. I think you will find these members of Senate and House aware of the active interests of their Cleveland constituents in the continuation of day-care centers.

In my daily work as an industrial personnel supervisor I have become acquainted with the fine contribution the day-care centers are making. Both wives of men in service and widows and divorcees need the help of adequate child-care plans. In this particular area of Cleveland, we will always have working mothers, even after demobilization is complete, because of industrial lay-offs and handicapping accidents, so our local committee is planning in the interim while we still have Federal funds to go on to secure local underwriting for a long-term plan of day care. I hope it may be encouraging to you to find this type of local interest and appreciation for the help Federal funds have been. Very truly yours,

MARY M. AIRIN, Supervisor of Women.

EXHIBIT 60

SALISBURY, N. C., June 22, 1946. Hon. CLAUDE PEPPER,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.: Absence from my office prevents submitting detailed statement but request that following be filed for record of Senate Committee on Education and Labor is testimony at its hearing on Maternal and Child Welfare Act of 1945: "The need for maternal and child welfare legislation has increased during the 11 months since the introduction of this bill. There are more children in the United States than ever before. The birth rate remains high and the problems confronting families with children have become more acute due to the housing crisis and the increased cost of living. We who provide care for the children of others be it in foster homes, institutions, or day-care centers hold evidence of these needs and are keenly aware of increases in the demands for child care outside the home. Part of this evidence will be found in the thousands of children to be seen in jails or jail-like detention facilities some being there only because they have suffered neglect and there is no other place for them. The need is desperate for the several social services including day care, foster care, and better dental service which will be more adequately provided under the provisions of title 3 of this act while we are especially aware of the demand for child welfare services. We can testify also to the acute need for the maternal and child-health services covered by title I and services for crippled children covered by titile II of this act.”

HOWARD W. HOPKIRK, Executive Director, Child Welfare League of America.

EXHIBIT 61

ASSOCIATION FOR CHILDHOOD EDUCATION,

Washington 6, D. C., June 21, 1946. Hon. CLAUDE PEPPER, Committee on Education and Labor,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR MR. PEPPER: As a representative of the members of the Association for Childhood Education (international), I respectfully urge the members of the Senate Committee on Education and Labor to give favorable consideration to the early passage of S. 1318.

This bill to provide for the general welfare by enabling States to make more adequate provision for the health and welfare of mothers and children and for service to crippled children is actively supported by our association under a portion of our plan of action dealing with, improving the health of children. The statement accepted by the delegates is

"The health of every person must be a matter of broad social concern. Experiences during the war period have shown that conditions related to the health of children can and must be improved.

"Members of the Association for Childhood Education, believing that the beginning of later physical difficulties frequently can be avoided or corrected through attention during the early years and that the relation of the social wellbeing of the child to the health of the child is a proved point, will work to establish the conditions that promote healthful living for children and will seek to gain the cooperation of others in this understaking."

It is a known fact that children today in many places are living, are entering school under the same handicaps as the children of 20 years ago. Unless specific health help is given to States and communities, the adult of tomorrow will suffer from the same preventable handicaps as do adults of today.

Ours is a great, powerful Nation. We will not continue in this role unless for all citizens early-in-life provisions are made that result in strong, healthy bodies, governed by alert, intelligent, courageous minds.

The Children's Bureau has through the years fulfilled with courage, skill, and with relatively little money its obligations to society by safeguarding the health and welfare of children. That obligation is heavier than ever before. It cannot be met without funds. The need is immediate.

The Association for Childhood Education appreciates the interest of the Senate Committee on Education and Labor, and urges immediate and favorable action on S. 1318. Sincerely,

MARY E. LEEPER, Executive Secretary.

EXHIBIT 62

DETROIT NURSERY SCHOOL ASSOCIATION,

Detroit 4, Mich., June 22, 1946. Senator CLAUDE PEPPER,

Senate Office Building, Washington 25, D. C. DEAR SENATOR PEPPER: The Detroit Nursery School Association, an organiza*tion of the parents of 1,000 children using public nursery schools and canteens, wishes to go on record as heartily supporting the Maternal and Child Welfare Act of 1945 (H. R. 3922, H. R. 3994, H. R. 4059, and S. 1318). We are, of course, interested in the provisions of this bill regarding maternal and child health; however, our chief concern as an organization is with the child-welfare provisions, especially those pertaining to child-care centers for children who cannot be cared for in their homes.

Since the Lanham funds were discontinued Detroit has managed to keep its child-care program in operation at the city's expense; but the city council has granted funds for continuance only on a diminishing basis, and the program has already deteriorated considerably. The number of centers has been reduced from 58 to 25; fees have risen from $0.50 a day to $4 and $5 weekly; and parents are now being required to prove economic need or bear the full expense of the The Detroit Board of Education, under which these schools were operated, has maintained a consistently high standard, and the example of good child care has done much to raise the standards of the homes from which the children come. In many other ways the schools have proved of great benefit to Detroit children, especially in the crowded districts where proper play facilities are not available, and to those parents who, because of the war or for other reasons, are unable to give their children complete 24-hour care. In many cases, only the nursery schools have made it possible for mothers to keep their children with them; in many others, children have been saved from irreparable physical or psychological damage by this supervised care.

care.

Our experience during the past year in getting appropriations from the city for this program has taught us how important it is that Detroit and every other community should have financial support from the Federal Government if the Nation's small children are to be assured of adequate care. Sincerely,

DETROIT NURSERY SCHOOL ASSOCIATION,
DOROTHY GERSON, Corresponding Secretary.

EXHIBIT 63

CLEVELAND CHAPTER, AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS,

Cleveland 15, Ohio, August 29, 1945. Hon. CLAUDE PEPPER,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR SENATOR PEPPER: Senate bill No. 1318, known as the Pepper bill, has the support of the Cleveland Chapter of the American Association of Social Workers.

Early passage of the bill is vital because of the emergency created by the order of the Federal Works Administration closing the day-care centers by October 31, We feel this closing order should be rescinded pending the adoption of an adequate program for day care on a permanent basis.

Fifteen hundred Cleveland children of working mothers are now being cared for by the emergency child care agency in day-care centers and day-care homes. The fathers of many of these children are still in the armed services. In 30 percent of the cases now under care the fathers are deceased, disabled, or out of the home by reason of divorce or separation so that it continues to be essential for the mothers to be employed.

Cleveland, like many other communities, has been a war-affected area. Families have been uprooted from home communities and have been living in crowded, unsatisfactory homes. The day-care centers have served as a stabilizing influence and have protected the family unit. From the standpoint of pure economy, money spent for child care in these day-care homes reaps a far greater benefit to society and individuals than the same amount spent for direct relief.

Local agencies are unable to carry on this program and to meet the need created by the sudden withdrawal of Federal funds. Will you do all you can to prevent the hardships which will certainly follow the closing of the centers? The present program must be continued until a satisfactory permanent program is established. Working mothers do not desire to become public charges. They desire to continue to be independent citizens. Let us all help them to their objective. Yours very sincerely,

LEON H. RICHMAN, Chairman, Cleveland Chapter.

EXHIBIT 64

CLEVELAND, OHIO, September 14, 1945. Hon. CLAUDE PEPPER, Congress of the United States,

Senate Building, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR SENATOR: We appreciate your consideration of and the influence you have shown in making possible the day-care program for children of working servicemen's wives, widows, and other mothers whose income is the chief sup port of their children.

We believe that this problem is of the utmost urgency at this time and are hoping that immediate action will be taken to continue the day-care program by administration action or a quick passage of legislation.

I am submitting for the 40 mothers of our group the enclosed statement
believing that it fully substantiates the reality of the need for this service.
Thank you again for your cooperation.
Respectfully yours,

St. John's DAY CARE CENTER,
MARY B. TURNER, Chairman.

AUGUST 31, 1945. We believe the emergency day-care program should continue for the following reasons:

There are children of 382 servicemen being cared for while the wives of these men work. There are involved in these cases both financial and emotional problems.

Most of these women have gone to work when their husbands went into the service with the avowed purpose to maintain a standard of living an meet obligations such as payments on property and furniture and doctor bills, which are incidental to a financial plan of any stable household.

Many wanted, in addition, to give their services to their country when it needed them. Also, they went to work because of their emotional need to adjust to the absence of their husbands. This adjustment to a temporary separation, with its attendant apprehension and anxieties, is possibly more accute than adjustment to actual widowhood.

We have some women who have made, or are making, both of these adjustments as their husbands have given their lives in the service of their country.

We have all been made sufficiently aware of the problems of adjustment of the returning veteran. Although we know there is skepticism in some quarters on this question, professional opinion will support our contention that this adjustment is in most cases too real. It is very apparent to everyone in the physically disabled veteran. A financially and emotionally stable home is going to contribute much to the veteran's easier return to civilian life.

In addition to these problems directly connected with the war, we have 288 women who are the only breadwinners for a family of children and will need long-term day-care service. Their problem resolves to the basic minimum of maintaining a decent standard of living.

The advantages of preschool education cannot be overlooked in the consideration of the continuation of emergency day care both from the standpoint of the training of the child and developing an insight into methods of training in the parent. Outstanding educators will, we believe, concur in this statement.

Lastly, we believe that a democracy which professes no discrimination because of race, sex, or creed and in which coeducation is prevalent has a responsibility to provide the service women need to enable them to express themselves in the way for which their talents, education, and skills enable them, especially when this service contributes positively to the development of their children. It would seem to be axiomatic that those women who are motivated only by a desire to work will work anyway and their children will in one way or another become community responsibilities, while those who might have more to contribute in the way of stability and ability and who would like to work will consider their responsibilities first to their families if it is at all possible financially, with a consequent loss both to the individual and society.

The chief objection to the emergency day-care program seems to be the concern that married women will displace breadwinning men in the competition for jobs. We are fully aware of the difficult problem that lies before our country in the matter of full employment and will concur in the opinion that in competition for a specific job between a breadwinning man and a woman the man should have the job. However, in general, we feel that this problem is apart and aside from the continuance of emergency day care and we believe individual cases of this kind will be comparatively rare. Many of the mothers of our day-care centers are now employed in jobs which definitely connote women's work. Of those who are and have been employed in industry there are, no doubt, many more who are trained to do stenographic and clerical and other jobs such as those of the service industries-department stores, restaurants, etc.—which are traditionally dominately women's jobs. We regret that statistics are not available on this question,

We feel that it is practical to reduce the necessary Government subsidy by an increase in fees which might be arranged on a sliding scale. The results of a recent survey indicate that a large percentage of our mothers are willing to pay more than they are now paying.

We, therefore, believe that emergency day care should be continued for the duration of the emergency and until our men return home and permanently for those of us who are going to need the service, in order to earn a livelihood.

ST. JOHN'S DAY CARE CENTER,
MARY B. TURNER, Chairman.
VIRGINIA BAILEY, Vice Chairman.
BERNICE A. STABLEY, Secretary.

EXHIBIT 65

THE WELFARE FEDERATION OF CLEVELAND,

Cleveland 15, Ohio, September 1, 1945. Hon. ROBERT CROSSER,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR MR. CROSSER: I am enclosing a copy of the tabulation of a survey which was recently made of the mothers using the Lanham day-care centers in this community. It is interesting to note the high percentage of mothers who are the chief wage earners and the number of mothers who are servicemen's wives. I thought this material might be helpful to you in stimulating interest in continued emergency appropriation for the day-care program.

To date, we have received no encouragement from any State or local resources. We have been informed that Governor Lausche will give considerable attention to the matter. It is obvious that the centers must close unless Federal help is forthcoming. We urge you to do everything within your power to get congressional action on this matter. Sincerely yours,

DANIEL R. ELLIOTT. Enclosure. INFORMATION ON DAY-CARE CENTERS

AUGUST 30, 1945. Explanation : 36 centers returned 1,005 questionnaires, 4 centers did not report.

Following is the break-down on the questions asked of the mothers : 1. Who would take care of your child if the center was closed?

65 or

6.4 percent of the children would be taken care of by relatives. 0.69 percent of the children would be taken care of by house

keepers. 1.2 percent of the children would be taken care of by friends

or neighbors.
28 or
2.7 percent of the children would be placed in licensed day-care

homes.
378 or 37.6 percent of the mothers would have to stop work.
504 or 50.1 percent of the mothers do not know what they will do.
10 or

0.9 percent of the mothers will make other arrangements.

7 or

13 or

1,005 total. 2. Will you need care for your child in a day-care center all of next year (1946) ? 761 or 75.7 percent of the children will need care in 1946.

3.8 percent of the children will not need care in 1946. 205 or 20.3 percent of the mothers do not know whether their children

will need care in 1946.

39 or

1,005 total.
3. Is the child's father in military service?

382 or 38 percent of the fathers are in military service."
623 or 61.9 percent of the fathers are not in military service.

1,005 total, 142 of the fathers have been discharged.

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