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by damage to the motor nervous system, usually occurring at or about the time of birth.

These parents have banded together in an effort to give all the spastic children in the State—and it is estimated that there are from 2,000 to 2,500 under the age of 16-an opportunity to become useful citizens.

Statistics show that approximately 70 percent of all spastic children are possessed of mentalities which are normal or above normal. But most of them are doomed to a wheel-chair existence unless they are given a fair chance to overcome their handicap.

As a matter of fact, many of these children have been committed to custodial schools, where they are confined with feeble-minded youngsters, simply because there is nothing else to do with them. Is such a situation to be tolerated in a civilized country dedicated to the doctrine of equal opportunity for everyone?

Much progress has been made in the treatment of spastic children since Dr. H, J. Wyckoff invited Dr, Earl Carlson to this State 3 years ago. Dr. Carlson, himself a spastic and an outstanding authority on the malady, started a class for spastic children in Seattle at that time, and since then similar classes have been founded in Everett, Bellingham, Vancouver, and Bremerton. Other classes are planned in Spokane and Aberdeen.

This work has been of incalculable benefit to date. But only a very small percentage of the sufferers can be reached unless there is a full-scale State program which makes the facilities available to every spastic child in the State.

As a matter of fact, the ideal solution of the problem would be a national program along the lines of the one provided for polio sufferers by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis.

The work should not stop, however, with the treatment of the spastics. There must also be a program of public education.

Because of their inability to control their muscles and the distressing grimaces they make when they try to express themselves, spastics are frequently mistaken for people of subnormal mentality-although, in many cases, they are far more intelligent than those who presume to judge them.

Atley O. Nelson, Jr., a director of the Washington Spastic Children's Society, tells a moving story in this connection. (Nelson is himself afflicted with cerebral palsy but, through his mother's efforts and his own, has been able to overcome the terrible handicap to a very large degree.)

He was in a Seattle department store a few weeks ago when he saw a fellow sufferer hobble past. Two women were also watching the afflicted man. One of them, Nelson reports, turned to the other and remarked, in a clearly audible tone of voice: “Do you suppose he just escaped from Steila coom?"

Nelson observed that, fortunately, he had steeled himself against being sensitive about his condition. “But,” he added, “most spastics are sensitive-and if this one had heard what the woman said it might have retarded his improvement by months."

This demonstrates that there is need for public understanding as well as public support of the society's program.

EXHIBIT 21

NEW YORK 19, N. Y., June 18, 1946. Senator CLAUDE PEPPER,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR: As a mother of a 3-year-old boy with cerebral palsy I earnestly beg you to support the proposed Maternal and Child Welfare Act.

The physically handicapped people would not be so badly handicapped if they had had the proper treatment and education when younger.

Children and adults with cerebral palsy need a great deal of training to help make them independent, but why should they be denied all this treatment and training when it is in the power of you Congressmen and Senators to help them. I am sure if you could see some of these youngsters, how intelligent and lovable they are, you would do all in your power to help them. Thank you very much for your time and consideration. Yours respectfully,

Mrs. MICHAEL Fox.

EXHIBIT 22

OWENSBORO, KY., January 12, 1946. Mr. CHARLES KRAMER,

Washington, D, C. DEAR MR. KRAMER: I am writing to ask for your support of the Senate bill S. 1318. It was introduced in the Senate last July by Senator Claude Pepper from Florida.

I am interested in this bill because it proposes help for the victims of cerebral palsy. There is very little help, and none in or near our State of Kentucky; while in this State alone there are 2,000 victims.

I am the mother of a so-called spastic daughter. She had a cerebral hemorrhage at birth, which left her in a very weakened condition; and robbed her of the power to control her movements. She is 8 years old now and is growing rapidly. She is gradually gaining strength and coordination but still cannot walk alone, feed, or dress herself. Needless to say, she has had no schooling, although she is alert, understands, and reasons well. There is no place equipped to care for this type of child near us, and none in which we could place her because the private institutions are too expensive. The only one we have found that has educational advantages along with a program of exercise, is $180 per month, and our income is less than that. The same thing is true when looking for medical care. The only specialist for this type of palsy we have found is in Baltimore, Md., and he requires check-ups every 4 months. This also is too expensive for us, and the long trip would do almost as much harm to the child's health as would be gained from the doctor's advice in a 4-month period.

We have tried to give our daughter every opportunity to become a useful citizen, because we have been told she should become 90-percent normal. However, there are pitifully few opportunities for these children.

I am writing not only for my daughter, but for the thousands of these victims who have had little or no help or encouragement. The majority of these people could become healthy, happy, and both physically and financially independent if they were given a chance. Sincerely,

Mrs. JAMES W. FOSTER.

EXHIBIT 23

PONTIAC 15, Mich., June 20, 1946. SENATE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR,

Senate Building, Washington, D. C. (Attention : Senator Claude Pepper.) GENTLEMEN: I should like to submit my views upon S. 1318, which I understand is now being considered by the full Senate Committee on Education and Labor. It is not within my province or intent to discuss sections 101 through 205 thereof.

I do have the following definite comment concerning title 3, sections 201 to 305, inclusive.

(1) Conditions in the State of Michigan show a need for this service in spite of the fact that Michigan has been one of the most progressive States on childwelfare matters.

(2) The advisability of requiring States to match funds has been shown time and time again in that it has caused more attention and care to be paid to the manner of expenditure of Federal funds.

(3) Section 303 (a) provides for a guidance and service program for “all children in need thereof” and subsection (3) which follows uses the words “provided that as services and care are furnished under the plan they shall be available to all children.

I agree most wholeheartedly that every child should be able to find these services but I believe that wording should be written into the law so that children whose parents are able to furnish the services shall obtain the services at parental expense and not at public expense. There is a distinct danger from a sociological standpoint in encouraging parents to expect a service from the State. The more fully that parents can be chargeable with entire responsibility for the care of their children, the better will be home and family relationships. I urge you

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to amend this section to include wording such as the following: “It is the intent of this statute that public assistance to children shall not be made available in cases where the parents are financially able to pay for such service, unless provision for reimbursement therefor by the parents js made.”

I should like to illustrate what I mean by this: Here in Michigan we furnish full care to crippled and afflicted children but we insist that this be done only where parents are financially unable to so provide for their children and we further require that parents agree to reimburse the State for funds expended in the event they are subsequently able so to do. This policy is indeed wise and should be incorporated in any services to be rendered to children. The fact that the policy should be interpreted liberally toward parents does not affect the soundness. In other words we should not place parents in the position of fearing to ask for services for their children when these services are needed, but we should, nevertheless, maintain family and parental responsibility to the extent of their reasonable ability.

(4) Title 3, section 303 (a) (4) specifies that the State plan for child-welfare services under this title must “provide for the administration of the plan by the State public-welfare agency or the supervision of the administration of the plan by the State public-welfare agency.

As this section now reads the services in question could not be furnished through the probate courts of Michigan and of many other States where the responsibility for delinquent, dependent, and neglected children is exclusively lodged by State constitution. This section should, therefore, be amended by the addition of the following language: "Where the jurisdiction of delinquent, neglected, or dependent children is lodged by existing State law or constitution in the courts of such State, the term 'public-welfare agency' shall be deemed to be or include such courts."

(5) May I comment further in general upon the provisions of title 3, Child Welfare Services, as follows:

Within recent years we have as a Nation become increasingly aware of the needs of our children and the wisdom of caring for their needs in an adequate fashion. It should be obvious to anyone that our prisons are overflowing, our hospitals for insane are crowded, and our enforcement of law in general is a tremendous, onerous problem largely because we have failed to meet the needs of children. Every criminal is a juvenile delinquent, grown up. A multitude of our insane persons are the result of emotional and social maladjustment during childhood. If we care for these problems adequately during childhood, we will eventually reduce the national expenses for crime, mental illness, and law enforcement.

The prevention of juvenile delinquency should become one of our primary objectives upon both a State and National basis. I believe that 90 percent of delinquency may be prevented and avoided by proper guidance and social control. I am enclosing herewith a pamphlet entitled "Let's Prevent Juvenile De linquency” which more fully explains my views on this matter.

Subject to the suggestions and exceptions herein made may I heartily endorse the provisions of Title 3, Child Welfare Services, section 301 through 303, inclusive, and urge the adoption of the same. Respectfully submitted,

ARTHUR E. MOORE, Judge of Probate, Oakland County, Alich.

LET'S PREVENT JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

JUVENILE DELINQUENTS ARE TOMORROW'S CRIMINALS (By Judge Arthur E. Moore, Judge of probate and juvenile courts) There are a million criminals in the United States in prisons, jails, or under parole or probation supervision. The cost of their custody and supervision approaches a billion dollars annually. The damage they do to property and the injuries they inflict on society cannot be measured. Undoubtedly it is much greater. There are probably 150,000 police officers engaged in apprehending criminals and protecting the public at a cost of a half billion dollars annually.

All of this is an absolute waste of money, a dead loss---for we get nothing out of it except misery.

These criminals all are juvenile delinquents grown up.

Our children must continuously associate with delinquents. Who are the delinquents?

Predelinquency often begins in early childhood. But the common violations of the rules of society appear to the general public only when the child has reached an age where he injures or inconveniences other people usually between 12 and 16. For instance, the theft of an automobile by a 15-year-old boy may stem from petty thievery begun when the child was only 5 or 6 years of age.

Usually there are intermediary acts of dishonesty, like the theft of candy bars or magazines from the corner store. A druggist friend of mine recently advised me that they caught an average of 20 children per week from petty thievery. Mentality

Though most delinquents have about normal mentality, they are all socially and educationally retarded as compared to their mental potentiality. This is caused by parental apathies. Where are the delinquents?

The predelinquents are found mixed in with the rest of our children, and are still in school.

The confirmed delinquent locates himself apart from other school children of his age. He is either expelled from school, or repeatedly truant. He may be found hanging around the corner drug store, or the pool room or the bus station, or some cheap restaurant, when he is not riding in a car.

He is neither employed, nor interested in securing work. From the standpoint of usefulness to himself, his home or the community, he is just a plain youth bum. All of this applies equally to delinquent girls except that their basic problem is always an inordinate interest in the opposite sex.

It is time we attacked the problem of preventing delinquency with a vengeance. The court's viewpoint

Since becoming a judge of the Oakland County juvenile court in 1938, I have made an intensified study of juvenile delinquency, its cause, prevention, and

I was trained as a school teacher, taught school, and acted as principal of a high school before becoming a lawyer. My experience with social problems was broadened through many clients.

As judge of the juvenile court I was fortunate in being situated in a county second largest in the State from the standpoint of population, which is brought before the court juvenile delinquents and neglected children of all types and from every conceivable area-urban and rural, wealthy and poor. On study commission

I have served as a member of the Governor's study commission of 1941-42 concerning the State correctional schools, as chairman of the juvenile-affairs committee of the Probate Judges' Association, and as a member of the State legislative committee which redrafted the juvenile-court laws.

The apathy of the public toward the cause and prevention of delinquency as compared to the intense public interest in the gruesome facts of crime, has led to a confusion of ideas as to the available methods of prevention of delinquency.

It has been my purpose to clarify and simplify the problem and point the way whereby juvenile delinquency may actually be prevented on a large-scale basis. Solution

We must train and teach the present generation of children to become good parents of the future, and thus prevent future delinquency.

cure.

POOR PARENTHOOD CAUSES DELINQUENCY-IT'S EXPENSIVE Though the 1945 figures are not yet available, during 1944 there were 18,356 divorces in Michigan as compared to 41,678 marriages. Further, the percentage of divorce to marriage in Michigan has increased 21 percent since 1935.

In 1945, there were 17,988 divorce cases filed in Wayne County as compared to 20,969 marriages. Probably there are more children involved in divorce cases per year than there are marriages. This is an indication of the degeneracy of parenthood. Delinquency is bound to follow. The delinquent's home

The delinquent's home is almost invariably poor from the standpoint of social training and parental care. Often he is one of many children, and his parents are divorced, or ill, or disinterested in their children. He shifts for himself mostly and runs the streets freely at all hours.

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to amend this section to include wording such as the following: "It is ti
of this statute that public assistance to children shall not be made avai.
cases where the parents are financially able to pay for such service, unle.
vision for reimbursement therefor by the parents is made.”

I should like to illustrate what I mean by this: Here in Michigan we fui: 1 V1.1.: full care to crippled and afflicted children but we insist that this be done u where parents are financially unable to so provide for their children and further require that parents agree to reimburse the State for funds expende. in the event they are subsequently able so to do. This policy is indeed wise and should be incorporated in any services to be rendered to children. The fact that the policy should be interpreted liberally toward parents does not affect the soundness. In other words we should not place parents in the position of fear. ing to ask for services for their children when these services are needed, but we should, nevertheless, maintain family and parental responsibility to the extent of their reasonable ability.

(4) Title 3, section 303 (a) (4) specifies that the State plan for child-welfare services under this title must "provide for the administration of the plan by the State public-welfare agency or the supervision of the administration of the plan by the State public-welfare agency.

As this section now reads the services in question could not be furnished through the probate courts of Michigan and of many other States where the responsibility for delinquent, dependent, and neglected children is exclusively lodged by State constitution. This section should, therefore, be amended by the addition of the following language: "Where the jurisdiction of delinquent, neglected, or dependent children is lodged by existing State law or constitution in the courts of such State, the term 'public-welfare agency' shall be deemed to be or include such courts."

(5) May I comment further in general upon the provisions of title 3, Child Welfare Services, as follows:

Within recent years we have as a Nation become increasingly aware of the needs of our children and the wisdom of caring for their needs in an adequate fashion. It should be obvious to anyone that our prisons are overflowing, our hospitals for insane are crowded, and our enforcement of law in general is a tremendous, onerous problem largely because we have failed to meet the needs of children. Every criminal is a juvenile delinquent, grown up. A multitude of our insane persons are the result of emotional and social maladjustment during childhood. If we care for these problems adequately during childhood, we will eventually reduce the national expenses for crime, mental illness, and law enforcement.

The prevention of juvenile delinquency should become one of our primary objectives upon both a State and National basis. I believe that 90 percent of delinquency may be prevented and avoided by proper guidance and social con trol. I am enclosing herewith a pamphlet entitled “Let's Prevent Juvenile De linquency” which more fully explains my views on this matter.

Subject to the suggestions and exceptions herein made may I heartily endorse
the provisions of Title 3, Child Welfare Services, section 301 through 30), in
clusive, and urge the adoption of the same.
Respectfully submitted,

ARTHUR E. MOORE,
Judge of Probate, Oakland County, Vich,

LET'S PREVENT JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

JUVENILE DELINQUENTS ARE TOMORROW'S CRIMINALS (By Judge Arthur E. Moore, Judge of probate and juvenile courts) There are a million criminals in the United States in prisons, jails, or under parole or probation supervision. The cost of their custody and supervision ap proaches a billion dollars annually. The damage they do to property and the injuries they inflict on society cannot be measured. Undoubtedly it is much greater. There are probably 150,000 police officers engaged in apprehending criminals and protecting the public at a cost of a half billion dollars annualty.

All of this is an absolute waste of money, a dead loss--for we get nothing out of it except misery.

These criminals all are juvenile delinquents grown up.

Our children must continuously associate with delinquents. Who are the delinquents?

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