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ENZYMES

AUSTRALIA

the list includes the following enzymes.

There are no recommendations regarding use.

PANCREATIN, PEPSIN, PAPAIN, FROTEASE, AMYLASE AND GUMASE.

The following is an extract from the U.E. note regarding the use of PAFAIN:

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14. Papain is used in the pre-slaughter injection of

animals to tenderize the meat and anlthough not an

animal feed adjunct it would seen proper to regard it,

since it results in residues in human food, as falling within the scope of this paper.

15. It is an enzyme extracted from the paw-paw fruit.. When applied to neat, it acts on the protein molecules during cooking and makes the meat more tender than it would otherwise have been. It has been used in this

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way widely and for a long time but is only effective near the surface. A process introduced a few years ago consists of injecting a concentrated properation of papain into the animal's blood systen via the juglar vein about half an hour before slaughter. The blood distributes the enzyme throughout the body tissues so. that if the animal is slaughtered soon after treatment, all the neat contains small quantities of the enzyme which tenderizes all the tissues when the meat is cooked.

16. The treatment can only make the meat more tender; it does not alter its appearance or flavour.

17. The liver, kidneys and tongue of a treated animal tend to disintegrate on cooking because of their high enzyme content and are therefore usually sold for

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manufacturing purposes where special cooking processes can be used or where they can be included in products which do not require the meat to retain the original shape. The enzyme does not survive normal cooking.

18. The size of the injection is between 200 and 500 cc.

according to the weight and age of the animal and it

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consists of 1 part pa pain and 9 parts saline solution. 19. The residues of papain in the raw meat (other than the kidneys and the liver) are not more than 5 ppm.

20. Papain is used therapeutically in humans as an

aid to digestion, the dosage being 0.12 to 0.6 gm. It is also used in beer to prevent turbidity. 21. The food Standards Committee, which is an advisory committee of independent food experts and representatives of the general public, advised the liinister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in February 1964, that . they saw no hazard to health from the consumption of

meat tenderized by the pre-slaughter injection of papain.

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22. The pre-slaughter injection of papain is permitted

in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, the United

States and several other countries.

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1. On the basis of the counties provide

enscerning follow-up investigation, as conour with your recomenda

covided in your 112 of 12/6/7L,

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7326.01-Mieves of Animal Drugo: Residus in Monts and

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Attached is a copy of an EIR of December 6, 1971, and the December 15,
1971, memorandum concerning investigation at Sandusky Dressed Beef Com-
pany. As expected, investigation after the fact has produced no facts
on which to pursue any further action.

We are, therefore, placing this number in permanent abeyance and marking
the file, by copy of this memorandum, for follow-up inspection in 90 days
to determine what, if any, irregularities may attend any future feeding
of cattle by this individual.

Enclosures:

EIR 12/6/71

Insp. Mramor's Memo 12/15/71

Robert E. Keating
Food and Drug Officer
Cincinnati District

cc:

CHI FI

R. P. Toledo

Senator KENNEDY. The subcommittee stands in recess.
(Whereupon, at 1:35 p.m., the subcommittee was recessed.)

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