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The following recommendations emerged from a more general discussion at the end of the workshop:
o Groups should be set up which are multidisciplinary and focussed on a defined task, e.g., a team of sensor, refractory and control specialists should be given the task of developing a continuous carbon sensor which would be fully operational within 2 years.
o A team approach to "intelligent processing" should be initiated early in the project and knowledge integration should be emphasized.
o Research teams should be encouraged, where feasible, to develop generalized approaches and solutions, including computer software, to enhance applicability in the broad area of metal smelting and refining.
o All potential spin-offs should be well publicized and aggressively pursued.
In addition, a participant from a copper company (J. Fay) closed the session by stating that many of the sensors highlighted during this meeting would also be of use to the copper industry and that although the sessions had focused on in-bath smelting the outcome could have more widespread applicability.
3See table 3.
Prepared by: Alan W. Cramb
Table 1. Necessary Chemical Sensors
Carbon Content of Liquid Metal
Oxygen Activity of Liquid Metal
Sulfur Content of Liquid Metal
Carbon Monoxide Content of Gas
Carbon Dioxide Content of Gas
Water Content of Gas
Hydrogen Content of Gas
Nitrogen Content of Gas
Slag FeO Content
Fe3+\Fe2+ ratio of slag
Table 2. Potential Physical Sensor Techniques
Table 3. Sensor Needs for Copper Industry
Bath Level Measurement
Continuous Temperature Measurement*
Continuous Chemical Analysis of Matte and Slag*
Flame Length Measurement
Solid Feed Rate Measurement
Vessel Content (weight, etc.)
denotes sensor need area to be similar to in-bath smelting needs.
NEAR-NET SHAPE CASTING
W. Eugene Eckhart, Jr., U. S. Department of Energy
M. R. Moore, USS Division of USX
R. A. Gleixner, Battelle Memorial Laboratories
L. T. Shiang, Inland Steel Company
Y. Sahai, Ohio State University
H. N. G. Wadley, University of Virginia
The Near-Net Shape Casting session was organized with the realization that several research efforts are underway within North America, indeed worldwide, investigating different casting concepts. No single method has emerged as significantly more advantageous than the others. Accordingly, the principal objective of this session was to determine whether there are common needs that could lead to research projects that would serve a broad constituency in this subject area. The areas of opportunity could include sensors, controls, mathematical and physical modeling, and issues relating to final product properties.
This session was conducted in two parts, according to the agenda shown in the Appendix of this report. The first day was characterized by astute presentations made by experts in their respective fields. Each presentation generated a modest number of questions within the subject area. It is noteworthy that no process-specific problems were detailed during the first-day presentations, to the disappointment of some of the participants. It was emphasized that the intent of the first-day session was to present a broad overview of the subject area, with concentrations on specific problems slated for discussion the following day.
The second day of this session was started by brief presentations made by individuals having hands-on experience with near-net shape casting of metal. Despite the obvious differences between the various casting methods, needs were categorized into three distinct areas: liquid metal handling, casting, and strip collection. With these categories, numerous needs were cited for each of the different processes, many of which were similar from one process to another.