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We discount the argument that publication of the 1202 regulations, or the title X regulations, would fan false hopes for Federal support. If any enterprise has come to grasp the sobering realities of unfunded programs, it is education over the span of the last 5 years. Still we know a lot of work has gone into these title X and 1202 regulations—a lot of it solicited from our ranks and they ought to be released. They could be a very useful touchstone or guide to institutional and State planners, if nothing else.

We have a long way to go yet both in making higher education more accessible to the general population and in providing the kinds of postsecondary services that will meet the broad and changing demand. Access to colleges has not changed materially from the picture given by Warren Willingham in his study of 3 years ago, and there are still large sections in various States which have no free-access higher education. Too, the simple availability of college services won't help a lot of people unless the programing is restructured.

Title X offers the steps, and the support, to help close both the availability and the programing gaps. We would like, with your permission, to include at this point in the record two resolutions that AACJC's Commission on Governmental Affairs adopted at our 1973 National Convention.

Mr. O'HARA. Without objection they will be entered into the record at this point.

[The resolutions referred to follow:]


Whereas, more than 50% of the students enrolled in the two-year colleges could be eligible for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grants provided by the Education Amendments of 1972;

Whereas, the community and junior colleges now serve almost 50% of the Blacks enrolled in college programs and serve an equal or greater percentage of the Chicanos;

Whereas, the community colleges serve equally the students pursuing both career and traditional studies;

Whereas, some 70% of the students attending the community colleges come from family incomes that average $10,000 or less annually:

Now therefore be it Resolved That, on behalf of the nation's two-year colleges, the Commission on Governmental Affairs of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges asserts vigorous support of the Student Financial Assistance Programs provided in the Education Amendments of 1972, and commends the Congress and the Administration for their support of these programs. Be it further Resolved That the same Commission urges Congress to adopt the President's requests for funding the Basic Grants at $622 million for the current fiscal year (to aid students enrolling in the coming academic year) and $959 million for the following year; and further urges that Congress, while heeding the 1972 Amendments and the requirement that existing programs be funded first, continue the funding of these programs as nearly as possible at the FY 1972 levels to ensure the orderly transition of student aid from the grant to the entitlement base.


Whereas, the Educational Amendments of 1972 have been acclaimed as landmark legislation in fostering democratization of post-secondary education by assuring access for every citizen;

Whereas, the goals of the career education concept charted by the Nixon Administration are encompassed in the Act within Title X;

Whereas, the Congress has made clear its intent to foster continuity and articulation of the diverse educational delivery systems within each of the fifty states; Whereas, Title X would bring stronger planning of education to achieve longrange efficiency, effectiveness, and economy, as well as to harmonize national and state priorities;

Whereas, Title X would assure community-oriented and consumer-oriented post-secondary education; and

Whereas, Title X would also assure comprehensive post-secondary education within the reach of citizens regardless of residence;

Be it Resolved That the Commission on Governmental Affairs of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges urges Congress to implement Title X of the Educational Amendments of 1972 by appropriating for fiscal year 1973 $15 million for the planning functions and the establishment of the 1202 Commissions; and,

Be it further Resolved That the Commission on Governmental Affairs, AACJC, calls for the U.S. Office of Education to expedite appropriate guidelines and regulations to implement Title X, so that states can begin immediate preparation for the better utilization of federal support to colleges and students.

Be it further Resolved That the same Commission asks the Congress to provide at least $100 million in FY 1974 support for Title X-$50 million for Part A, and $50 million for Part B.

Dr. GLEAZER. Our highest concern is the student. We want him to have more learning options. We want him to have the fullest measure of academic credit and the highest degree of mobility with what he earns. The policies of the 1972 amendments which seek to rally State agencies and institutions around the educational consumer, and to bring their programs into greater harmony, are very much in the public interest, and in higher education's interest as well. In most States, we must help the community colleges and the State vocational agencies see the importance of working more closely, and get the universities to be more supportive of both. I think the committee might like to look at a survey which has just been done by John C. Mundt, director of Washington State Board for Community College Education and his staff. It gives a graphic picture of where the community colleges and vocational education are working well together, and where they are not. The programs in title X would bring much greater harmony.

That is the statement. There is also attached to the statement an exhibit from John C. Mundt, Mr. Chairman, and that concludes my remarks.

I would be glad to respond to your questions.

Mr. O'HARA. Without objection the material attached to the statement will be entered at the conclusion of your statement. [The material referred to follows:]



1. What is the relationship between vocational-technical institutes and the community college system?

2. Are we correct in assuming that the vocational-technical schools serving post-secondary students in your state have become a part of the community college system?

3. Are they separate?

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1 Technically, do not have voc-tech institutes, Regional Occupational Centers.



2 Community colleges have option of identifying as voc-tech institutes, none have chosen to do so.

3 Wisconsin has a vocational-technical system and a university system.


1. What is the relationship between vocational-technical institutes and the community college system?

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2. Are we correct in assuming that the vocational-technical schools serving post-secondary students in your state have become a part of the community college system?

Responses received:

Yes, this is true-17; No, this is not true-16.

3. Are they separate?

Responses received:

Yes-16; No-17.

Of the 17 states who responded "yes" to question 2, 76% reported a cooperative relationship existed; 24% reported they did not have vocational-technical institutes.

Of the 16 states who reported separated systems for community colleges and voc-tech institutes, 50/ complained of existing duplication, conflict, confusion and competition. 50% stated either a cooperative relationship existed, or made no particular comment of dissatisfaction with the system.

Mr. O'HARA. I wonder if it might not be better if we heard the other witness and then direct our questions to all of you gentlemen. Mr. Wellman.

Dr. WELLMAN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am Fred Wellman, executive secretary of the Illinois Junior College Board in Springfield, Ill. I am also a member of the board of directors of the National Council of State Directors of Community/Junior Colleges and served last summer on a special advisory committee to the U.S. Office of Education on the statewide planning commissions authorized in title X of the Education Amendments of 1972.

The Education Amendments of 1972 passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Nixon in June 1972 (Public Law 92-318) provides a tremendous opportunity and challenge for higher education, particularly the community colleges.

This landmark legislation provided the opportunity to extend educational services to all of our citizens beyond high school age so that we can develop the educated and trained citizenry that our society and economy demands today and in the future. There are promises of Federal funds to needy students and to institutions for comprehensive postsecondary educational programs.

Title X of this legislation held out hope to postsecondary educators that finally they would receive the help that they desperately need for master planning, for establishing new community colleges in areas where no such opportunities now exist, and for expanding existing programs primarily in the expensive occupational technical areas to meet the career education needs of business, industry, agriculture, and government for workers with the skills for today's complex and competitive economic world.

The legislation also provided a challenge to educators and the States to better plan, organize, and coordinate their higher educational and postsecondary educational activities which are often fractured by lack of planning and coordination among the public universities, private colleges, community colleges, area vocational schools, and proprietary institutions. Title X proposed the establishment of comprehensive statewide planning commissions, more commonly known as 1202 commissions, to provide the planning and coordination mechanisms for postsecondary education to avoid the unnecessary duplica

tion that we can not afford financially and to fill the gap for educational services as we cannot afford to waste the talents of our citizens if we want a strong economic and an enlightened society.

Title X with its aid for community colleges and occupational education along with the comprehensive statewide 1202 planning commissions was created at the right time to help the community colleges of Illinois.

Since the passage of the Public Junior College Act in 1965, the State of Illinois has rapidly expanded its program of community colleges so that the State now has 46 campuses governed by local boards plus 1 campus governed by the Illinois Junior College Board. Programs and enrollments have more than tripled since 1965.

However, Illinois still has over 30 percent of its land area and over 1 million of its citizens not in a junior college district. Recognizing this problem, the Illinois General Assembly last year passed legislation (P.A. 77-1822) requiring all parts of the State to become a part of a junior college district by August 1974 so that all citizens could benefit from comprehensive postsecondary programs. No special funds were appropriated for this purpose as we anticipated receiving needed assistance in planning and establishing these new colleges or expanded existing colleges from title X. It would appear that this in Illinois coincided with the intent of title X.

Also, the citizens of Illinois adopted a new constitution in 1970 which will require a State board of education for the first time in the State's history, although the State does have existing State boards for vocational education and for higher education. The responsibilities for this new State board of education are to be determined by the State legislature and discussions are currently underway. Here again, implementation of title X and the 1202 statewide planning commissions would be of great assistance as Illinois restructures its educational organization under its new constitution.

We have never had a statewide plan for community colleges in Illinois. References to community colleges have been included in three master plans prepared for the State board of higher education that include all aspects of higher education in the State. However, the Illinois Board of Higher Education and the Illinois Junior College Board went on record last fall requiring each local community college to develop its master plan and submit them to the two State boards for review and approval and to require the Illinois Junior College Board to develop a statewide master plan this year. No special funds were appropriated for this statewide community college master plan that is anticipated to include master planning for the expensive postsecondary occupational programs in the public community colleges. We were hoping for assistance from part A and part B of title X for such master planning.

Several State agencies have recently urged greater coordination and cooperation on occupational programs between the community colleges and the area vocational schools in Illinois. We support such cooperation and title X funding would assist us in such endeavors. I also wish to indicate there is need for facilities equipment in the community colleges which you discussed this morning. We have a current backlog of almost $110 million in junior college projects for fiscal 1973

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