Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary

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With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for education in the life sciences with desires to replace, reduce, and refine the use of laboratory animals. In 1985, the United States Congress enacted three laws that dealt with laboratory animals, including amendments to the Animal Welfare Act. This assessment analyzes the scientific, regulatory, economic, legal, and ethical considerations involved in alternative technologies in biomedical and behavioral research, toxicity testing, and education. Included is a detailed examination of federal, state, and institutional regulation of animal use, and a review of recent developments in 10 other countries. The report illustrates a range of options for congressional action in seven areas of public policy regarding animals: using existing alternatives; developing new alternatives; disseminating research and testing information; restricting animal use; counting the numbers and kinds of animals used; establishing a uniform policy for animal use within federal agencies; and amending the Animal Welfare Act. (JN)

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Page 72 - So God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. And God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.
Page 396 - Animals used in this study were maintained in facilities fully accredited by the American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care...
Page 246 - Disorders Diseases of the Nervous System and Sense Organs Diseases of the Circulatory System Diseases of the Respiratory...
Page 73 - For it is written in the law of Moses, "You shall not muzzle an ox when it is treading out the grain." Is it for oxen that God is concerned? '"Does he not speak entirely for our sake?
Page 246 - Mental disorders Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs Diseases of the circulatory system...
Page 282 - Nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing the Secretary to promulgate rules, regulations, or orders with regard to design, outlines, guidelines, or performance of actual research or experimentation by a research facility as determined by such research facility...
Page 283 - ... is being used, or is intended for use, for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition purposes or as a pet.
Page 263 - Its stated goals are to: stimulate technological innovation; use small business to meet federal research and development needs; increase private sector commercialization of innovations derived from federal research and development; and " foster and encourage participation by minority and disadvantaged persons in technological innovation.
Page 285 - In the case of a research facility, the program of adequate veterinary care shall include the appropriate use of anesthetic, analgesic, or tranquilizing drugs, when such use would be proper in the opinion of the attending veterinarian at the research facility.

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