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grinding and the bleaching of the pulp would be offset completely or to a great extent by the lower costs of the available hardwoods and their greater density. The chemigroundwood process is so new that it is not in general use but it has long-range potential in the East where hardwoods are abundant and the softwoods are becoming less available and more expensive. Because of the higher yields chemigroundwood should be more advantageous than bleached semichemical pulps."

I am also attaching letter addressed to Dr. Moyer by Dr. W. F. Holzer which I believe will give you briefly the information you desire. If you wish more detail on the subject I would suggest you obtain a copy of The Manufacture of Chemigroundwood Pulp From Hardwoods by C. Earl Libby and Frederic W. O'Neil, New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y.

Sincerely yours,

G. J. TICOULAT,

Deputy Assistant Administrator, Chemical, Rubber, and Forest Products.

CHEMIGROUNDWOOD FOR NEWSPRINT

(Memorandum to Dr. W. W. Moyer, June 26, 1951)

As a matter of record, chemigroundwood is a pulp prepared by a process announced about a year ago by the New York State College of Forestry. The process consists of impregnating blocks of wood under heat and pressure with sodium sulfite solution and grinding the treated blocks on regular pulp grinders. The result is a pulp giving a yield of about 8 percent but in which the fibers are almost whole and the strength of the pulp is intermediate between groundwood and sulfite. The purpose of developing this process was to enable mills in the Northeast to utilize hardwoods to good advantage.

I notice in the description of the process that the brightness of the pulp is in the range of 30-40 G.E. This compares to normal wood at about 55 and unbleached sulfite at about 60.

Referring to Mr. G. J. Ticoulat's letter, which inquires about the possibility of using chemigroundwood or semichemical in newsprint, there is some doubt in my mind as to whether he means a substitution of these pulps for the groundwood or for the sulfite fraction. If we assume that these pulps are to be substituted or groundwood I would say the only drawback would be color. Both of these pulps can be bleached sufficiently with highly buffered hypochlorite or with peroxide so that the difficulty with color could be overcome. Either pulp would contribute enough more strength than groundwood that the sulfite fraction could be reduced. Since both pulps are usually made from hardwood, which is short-fibered, it might be doubtful as to whether the entire sulfite fraction could be replaced. Certainly either pulp, when bleached, could be used in place of groundwood. The question of the comparative cost would probably be the determining factor as to how much could be used.

We have already anticipated the possibility of replacing sulfite with one of these pulps. Again it is probable that the pulp would have to be bleached. In this application, however, we do not feel that the entire sulfite fraction could be displaced. It is generally conceded that the sulfite forms a framework of long fibers which serves as a "skeleton" of the sheet. Since, as already mentioned, chemigroundwood or semichemical are almost always made from shortfibered hardwoods there might be some difficulty in completely replacing the sulfite. In this case these pulps are cheaper than sulfite and would be offering a financial saving so that every effort would be made to put in as much as possible.

It is a matter of history that commercial newsprint sheets have been made from 100 percent groundwood. Obviously it would be inadvisable to say that it would be impossible to replace 100 percent of the sulfite, but from consideration of average production, it is doubtful if any superintendents would care to go that far.

Summarizing, we would say that either semichemical or chemigroundwood, when bleached, could be used in newsprint. The limiting factors would be cost, when substituting for groundwood; and the lack of long-fibered pulp when substituting for sulfite.

W. F. HOLZER.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, NATIONAL PRODUCTION AUTHORITY, Washington, July 5, 1951.

Hon. LINDLEY BECKWORTH,

House of Represenatives,

Washington, D. C.

DEAR CONGRESSMAN BECKWORTH: As requested in your letter of June 23, 1951, I am enclosing herewith a statement dealing specifically with the matter of the supply of pulpwood and wood pulp, and the relationship of the supply of these commodities to newsprint supply.

Please let us know if you have further quesitons in respect to any phase of this report.

Sincerely yours,

G. J. TICOULAT,

Deputy Assistant Administrator, Chemical, Rubber and Forest Products Bureau.

PULPWOOD AND WOOD-PULP SUPPLY

PULPWOOD SUPPLY

Data showing receipts (foreign and domestic), consumption, and inventories of pulpwood are presented in appendix A of this report.

Virtually all United States receipts of imported pulpwood come from Canada. Imports of pulpwood from Canada regularly constitute approximately 10 percent of the domestic industry's total pulpwood requirement; the remaining 90 percent is from domestic sources. Most of the imported pulpwood is consumed by pulpmills located in the Northeast, the Lake States, and the Northwest.

The availability of pulpwood supply in volume adequate to maintain high-level domestic production of pulp, paper, paperboard, and converted products will depend upon

1. The availability of an adequate supply of wood's labor to harvest domestic and Canadian pulpwood.

2. The availability, during the emergency period, of trucks, tractors, cranes, and other mechanized equipment for use in domestic and Canadian pulpwood operations.

3. Canada's ability to maintain high-level exports of pulpwood to this country, in the face of growing requirements for home consumption.

To date, the supply of pulpwood has been well maintained during the emergency period, with the result that domestic pulp and paper production during 1950 has been at record levels.

WOOD-PULP PRODUCTION

Data showing the trend of domestic wood-pulp production are presented in appendix B of this report.

Over-all domestic production of wood pulp in the first 4 months of 1951 exceeded production in the first 4 months of 1950 by 17 percent.

Of the total volume of wood-pulp produced domestically, approximately 90 percent is produced by integrated companies for their own use and 10 percent for sale.

Domestic producers of newsprint are for the most part completely integrated. As a consequence, they are not directly concerned with problems of market pulp supply. Problems in respect to pulp supply have been most serious in the case of nonintegrated paper mills whose operations are dependent upon purchased pulp, 55 percent of which is derived from foreign supply sources.

To the best of our knowledge, domestic newsprint production has not been curtailed in any degree because of a shortage of wood pulp.

WOOD-PULP CAPACITY

Data showing the trend of domestic wood-pulp capacity are presented in appendix C.

Domestic capacity for the production of wood pulp totaled 12,130,164 tons in 1946.

Since 1946, capacity has increased at an average rate of a million tons a year. This rate of increase will be maintained through 1952.

Total domestic pulp capacity in 1952 will exceed 1946 capacity by 49 percent. This expansion has been heaviest in sulfate pulps and in "other grades" produced by special high-yield pulping processes.

The pulp grades consumed in newsprint production are groundwood and sulphite except those mills in the South which use groundwood and sulphate. Groundwood capacity in 1952 will exceed 1946 capacity by 28 percent; sulphite capacity in 1952 will exceed capacity by 9 percent.

WOOD-PULP CONSUMPTION

Data showing the trend of domestic wood-pulp consumption are presented in appendix D.

Total wood-pulp consumption in 1950 exceeded 1946 consumption by 42 percent. Wood-pulp consumption in paper and paperboard production in the first 4 months of 1951 was at an all time record rate, exceeding the 1946 rate of consumption by 47 percent.

Recent data on the consumption of pulp by major segments of the paper and paperboard industry are available only for the year 1947. These data show that, in the year 1947, 54 percent of the total domestic groundwood consumption was consumed in the manufacture of newsprint and groundwood paper and 22 percent of the total domestic unbleached sulphite consumption.

OUTLOOK FOR NEWSPRINT

Domestic newsprint producers have been operating at virtual capacity, and, barring shortages of labor or production materials, are expected to continue operating at virtual capacity.

Since most producers of newsprint produce their own wood-pulp requirements, they are less concerned with problems of market pulp supply than producers in most other segments of the industry.

Comparative prices for newsprint and for the grades of wood pulp used in newsprint manufacture are as follows:

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The average furnish of domestic newsprint is 85 percent groundwood and 15 percent unbleached sulphite. Relative prices of newsprint and wood pulp have not operated to encourage an increased production of one at the expense of the other. There is no evidence that any domestic producer of newsprint has curtailed his newsprint production in order to increase his sales of wood pulp. Demands for wood pulp for the production of products other than paper and paperboard, i. e., rayon, cellophane, plastics, explosives, etc., have increased at a faster rate in recent years than the demand for pulp for papermaking. Most of these demands, however, are for dissolving and special chemical grades of wood pulp, grades that are not a factor in the production of newsprint. Despite the sharp upward trend in the requirement of wood pulp for products other than paper and board, consumption of pulp in the manufacture of such items amounted to only 4 percent of the total domestic consumption in 1950.

Sharp increases in the demand for dissolving pulps for the production of military explosives are expected. The NPA, in cooperation with the Munitions Board, will arrange for the satisfaction of this requirement by equitably distributing orders among producers qualified to supply this tonnage. It is not anticipated that the over-all requirement of wood pulp for this purpose will be such as to interfere with the supply of pulp for paper production. Certainly the munitions program, as presently projected, should have no direct impact on newsprint supply.

NPA POWERS

NPA does have the power to direct or freeze the flow of pulp-in fact, recently issued an order, M-72 (copy attached), and the justification for this order is indicated in the accompanying press release NPA-906. However, as indicated in my testimony, this order, as it now stands, should not have any effect on the production of newsprint in the United States because most newsprint producers manufacture their own pulp and have sufficient excess production to produce the 3-percent reserve over and above their own needs for newsprint.

As regards the Canadian production, I do not believe controls could be made effective on Canadian production from the United States unless done by the mutual consent of Canadian authorities, and in that event it would probably be accomplished by the controls actually being made effective by the Canadian Government. I know of no reason why such a mutual plan could not be worked out in the event of an all-out mobilization, just as was done in the last war, if the circumstances justified it.

In WPB days there was issued an order, M-93, which provided for complete allocation of the available wood-pulp supply. Deliveries and usage of all grades of wood pulp, domestic and foreign, were completely controlled. However, short of an all-out war it is not expected that such an allocation of wood pulp would be necessary in the present emergency.

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Details may not add to totals due to rounding of figures to nearest thousands.

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NOTE.-Capacity data above give the tonnage that could be produced during the stated calendar year with full use of equipment and an adequate supply of pulpwood and labor, with each mill operating the number of days it might expect to operate under normal conditions.

Companies reporting changes in capacity during a year have been credited with additional or decreased tonnage capacity for only that part of the year after which the capacity change was in effect.

Source: U. S. Pulp Producers Association, Inc.

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