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COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATIONS
SECURITY AND PRIVACY

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION,
AVIATION AND MATERIALS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

NINETY-EIGHTH CONGRESS

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COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DON FUQUA, Florida, Chairman

ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey
GEORGE E. BROWN, JR., California
JAMES H. SCHEUER, New York
RICHARD L. OTTINGER, New York
TOM HARKIN, Iowa

MARILYN LLOYD, Tennessee
DOUG WALGREN, Pennsylvania
DAN GLICKMAN, Kansas
ALBERT GORE, JR., Tennessee
ROBERT A. YOUNG, Missouri
HAROLD L. VOLKMER, Missouri
BILL NELSON, Florida

STAN LUNDINE, New York
RALPH M. HALL, Texas
DAVE MCCURDY, Oklahoma

MERVYN M. DYMALLY, California
PAUL SIMON, Illinois

NORMAN Y. MINETA, California

RICHARD J. DURBIN, Illinois

MICHAEL A. ANDREWS, Texas

BUDDY MACKAY, Florida

TIM VALENTINE, North Carolina
HARRY M. REID, Nevada

ROBERT G. TORRICELLI, New Jersey
FREDERICK C. BOUCHER, Virginia

LARRY WINN, JR., Kansas
MANUEL LUJAN, JR., New Mexico
ROBERT S. WALKER, Pennsylvania
WILLIAM CARNEY, New York

F. JAMES SENSENBRENNER, JR.,
Wisconsin

JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire
RAYMOND J. MCGRATH, New York
JOE SKEEN, New Mexico

CLAUDINE SCHNEIDER, Rhode Island
BILL LOWERY, California

ROD CHANDLER, Washington HERBERT H. BATEMAN, Virginia SHERWOOD L. BOEHLERT, New York ALFRED A. MCCANDLESS, California TOM LEWIS, Florida

J. H. POORE, Executive Director
ROBERT C. KETCHAM, General Counsel
REGINA A. DAVIS, Administrator

David S. JEFFERY, Minority Staff Director

SUBCOMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION, Aviation and Materials

DAN GLICKMAN, Kansas, Chairman

ALBERT GORE, JR., Tennessee MERVYN M. DYMALLY, California RICHARD L. OTTINGER, New York TOM HARKIN, Iowa

MICHAEL A. ANDREWS, Texas

WILLIAM CARNEY, New York SHERWOOD L. BOEHLERT, New York ALFRED A. MCCANDLESS, California

F

Neal Patrick, Milwaukee, Wis., accompanied by Paul Piaskoski, Esq.,

counsel

Jimmy McClary, division leader for operational security and safeguards

division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N. Mex., accom-

panied by Dotty Camillo, group leader, communications and telecom-

munications group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, N. Mex.......

Donn B. Parker, senior management systems consultant, Informations

Systems Management Department, ŠRI International, Menlo Park,

Calif., and Geoffrey S. Goodfellow, senior systems analyst, SRI Interna-

tional, Menlo Park, Calif.

Stephen T. Walker, president, Trusted Information Systems, Inc., Infor-

mation Systems Telecommunications, Glenwood, Md.....

October 17, 1983:

Joseph R. Wright, Jr., Deputy Director, Office of Management and

Budget, accompanied by John P. McNicholas, Chief, Information Policy,

Office of Management and Budget..

Warren Reed, Director, Information Management and Technology Divi-

sion, U.S. General Accounting Office, accompanied by Walter L. Ander-

son, Senior Associate Director, Information Management and Technol-

ogy Division, and Harold J. Podell, Group Director with Information

Management and Technology Division

John W. Lyons, Acting Director, National Bureau of Standards, and

Dennis Branstad, Manager, Computer Integrity and Security Technol-

ogy Group, Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, National

Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce..

Melville H. Klein, Director, DOD Computer Security Center, National

Security Agency, U.S. Department of Defense, accompanied by Col.

Roger R. Schell, Deputy Director, DOD Computer Security Center.

Floyd I. Clarke, Deputy Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Divi-

sion, Federal Bureau of Investigation, accompanied by Kier T. Boyd,

Acting Assistant Director, Technical Services Division, Federal Bureau

of Investigation, and Anthony J. Adamski, Jr., Chief, Financial Crimes

Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Richard H. Shriver, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, Electronic Sys-

tems and Information Technology, accompanied by Dr. Bob Conley,

Deputy, Advanced Technology; Joe Bishop, Deputy, Programs and Re-

sources Management; and Paul Trause, Inspector General, U.S. Treas-

ury

COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY

AND PRIVACY

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1983

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,

SUBCOMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION,

AVIATION AND MATERIALS,
Washington, D.C.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 9:30 a.m., in room 2318, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Dan Glickman (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Mr. GLICKMAN. Why don't we go ahead and begin this morning. I might mention to the audience, after all of the members have their chance for opening statements, then the lights will have to go off, and we are going to show about 4 minutes from the movie "War Games," which I think outlines the problem fairly clearly, and then we'll go into our witnesses.

Today the subcommittee will turn to one of those emerging technical and legal issues that is beginning to affect our society in a very broad way-computer and communications security and privacy.

Computers and the communications links that connect them are becoming more and more important to modern society. Banks, hospitals, schools, businesses of all kinds, and the military have assembled vast amounts of data on which they, and we, depend. In fact, the average citizen is probably unaware of the true extent that computers touch his daily life. Because computers are usually unseen, few of us, I suspect, are fully aware of their growth and importance.

Possibly for this reason we have also been largely unaware of the possibilities for the improper use of computers or access to the information they contain. In some cases, we have failed even to take the most elementary precaution, the electronic equivalent of locking the door.

Yet, as recent events have shown, whenever there is something of value, we must take steps to protect it.

First, there was the popular film "War Games" in which a youngster is able to penetrate the computers of the North American Defense Command and almost precipitates World War III. While this ultimate disaster is not likely possible, the film does illustrate, I am told, certain break-in methods that are factual.

Then there was the disclosure that a group of Milwaukee young people-known as the 414's-had, in fact, broken into computers

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