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668.

Sec.

(a) Assertion of State standards in absence of applicable Federal standards.

(b) Submission of State plan for develop-
ment and enforcement of State
standards to preempt applicable
Federal standards.

(c) Conditions for approval of plan.
(d) Rejection of plan; notice and oppor-
tunity for hearing.

(e) Discretion of Secretary to exercise

authority over comparable standards subsequent to approval of State plan; duration; retention of jurisdiction by Secretary upon determination of enforcement of plan by State.

(f) Continuing evaluation by Secretary of State enforcement of approved plan; withdrawal of approval of plan by Secretary; grounds; procedure; conditions for retention of jurisdiction by State.

(g) Judicial review of Secretary's withdrawal of approval or rejection of plan; jurisdiction; venue; procedure; appropriate relief; finality of judgment.

(h) Temporary enforcement of State standards.

Programs of Federal agencies.

(a) Establishment, development

and

maintenance by head of each Federal agency.

(b) Report by Secretary to President. (c) Omitted.

(d) Access by Secretary to records and reports required of agencies.

672.

673.

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670.

671.

(c) Contracting authority of Secretary of Labor; cooperation between Secretary of Labor and Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(d) Dissemination of information to interested parties.

(e) Delegation of functions of Secretary

of Health and Human Services to Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Training and employee education. (a) Authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services to conduct education and informational programs; consultations. (b) Authority of Secretary of Labor to conduct short-term training of personnel.

(c) Authority of Secretary of Labor to establish and supervise education and training programs and consult and advise interested parties. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

(a) Statement of purpose.

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(c) Designation by Governor of appropriate State agency for receipt of grant.

(d) Submission of application.

(e) Approval or rejection of application. (f) Federal share.

(g) Administration and enforcement of programs contained in approved State plans; Federal share. (h) Report to President and Congress. Statistics.

(a) Development and maintenance of program of collection, compilation, and analysis; employments subject to coverage; scope.

(b) Authority of Secretary to promote, encourage, or engage in programs, make grants, and grant or contract for research and investigations.

(c) Federal share for grants.

(d) Utilization by Secretary of State or local services, facilities, and employees; consent; reimbursement.

(e) Reports by employers.

(f) Supersedure of agreements between Department of Labor and States for collection of statistics. Audit of grant recipient; maintenance of records; contents of records; access to books, etc.

Annual reports by Secretary of Labor and Secretary of Health and Human Services; contents.

Omitted.

Separability of provisions.

Authorization of appropriations.

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in section 1553 of this title; title 15 sections 2080, 2603; title 25 section 450m; title 30 section 951; title 31 section 1105; title 42 section 6971.

§ 651. Congressional statement of findings and declaration of purpose and policy

(a) The Congress finds that personal injuries and illnesses arising out of work situations impose a substantial burden upon, and are a hindrance to, interstate commerce in terms of lost production, wage loss, medical expenses, and disability compensation payments.

(b) The Congress declares it to be its purpose and policy, through the exercise of its powers to regulate commerce among the several States and with foreign nations and to provide for the general welfare, to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources

(1) by encouraging employers and employees in their efforts to reduce the number of occupational safety and health hazards at their places of employment, and to stimulate employers and employees to institute new and to perfect existing programs for providing safe and healthful working conditions;

(2) by providing that employers and employees have separate but dependent responsibilities and rights with respect to achieving safe and healthful working conditions;

(3) by authorizing the Secretary of Labor to set mandatory occupational safety and health standards applicable to businesses affecting interstate commerce, and by creating an Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission for carrying out adjudicatory functions under this chapter;

(4) by building upon advances already made through employer and employee initiative for providing safe and healthful working conditions;

(5) by providing for research in the field of occupational safety and health, including the psychological factors involved, and by developing innovative methods, techniques, and approaches for dealing with occupational safety and health problems;

(6) by exploring ways to discover latent diseases, establishing causal connections between diseases and work in environmental conditions, and conducting other research relating to health problems, in recognition of the fact that occupational health standards present problems often different from those involved in occupational safety;

(7) by providing medical criteria which will assure insofar as practicable that no employee will suffer diminished health, functional capacity, or life expectancy as a result of his work experience;

(8) by providing for training programs to increase the number and competence of personnel engaged in the field of occupational safety and health;

(9) by providing for the development and promulgation of occupational safety and health standards;

(10) by providing an effective enforcement program which shall include a prohibition against giving advance notice of any inspection and sanctions for any individual violating this prohibition;

(11) by encouraging the States to assume the fullest responsibility for the administration and enforcement of their occupational safety and health laws by providing grants to the States to assist in identifying their needs and responsibilities in the area of occupational safety and health, to develop plans in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, to improve the administration and enforcement of State occupational safety and health laws, and to conduct experimental and demonstration projects in connection therewith;

(12) by providing for appropriate reporting procedures with respect to occupational safety and health which procedures will help achieve the objectives of this chapter and accurately describe the nature of the occupational safety and health problem;

(13) by encouraging joint labor-management efforts to reduce injuries and disease arising out of employment.

(Pub. L. 91-596, § 2, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1590.)

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), (11), and (12), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91-596, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1590, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under this section and Tables.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 34 of Pub. L. 91-596 provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter and section 3142-1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending section 553 of this title, sections 5108, 5314, 5315, and 7902 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 633 and 636 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and section 1421 of Title 49, Appendix, Transportation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1114 of Title 18] shall take effect one hundred and twenty days after the date of its enactment [Dec. 29, 1970]."

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 91-596 provided: "That this Act [enacting this chapter and section 3142-1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending section 553 of this title, sections 5108, 5314, 5315, and 7902 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 633 and 636 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and section 1421 of Title 49, Appendix, Transportation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1114 of Title 18] may be cited as the 'Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970'."

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in section 671 of this title. § 652. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter—

(1) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Labor.

(2) The term "Commission” means the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission established under this chapter.

(3) The term "commerce" means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication among the several States, or between a State and any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia, or a possession of the United States (other than the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands), or between points in the same State but through a point outside thereof.

(4) The term "person" means one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, business trusts, legal representatives, or any organized group of persons.

(5) The term “employer” means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who has employees, but does not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State.

(6) The term "employee" means an employee of an employer who is employed in a business of his employer which affects commerce.

(7) The term "State" includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia,

Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(8) The term "occupational safety and health standard” means a standard which requires conditions, or the adoption or use of one or more practices, means, methods, operations, or processes, reasonably necessary or appropriate to provide safe or healthful employment and places of employment.

(9) The term "national consensus standard" means any occupational safety and health standard or modification thereof which (1), has been adopted and promulgated by a nationally recognized standards-producing organization under procedures whereby it can be determined by the Secretary that persons interested and affected by the scope or provisions of the standard have reached substantial agreement on its adoption, (2) was formulated in a manner which afforded an opportunity for diverse views to be considered and (3) has been designated as such a standard by the Secretary, after consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies.

(10) The term "established Federal standard" means any operative occupational safety and health standard established by any agency of the United States and presently in effect, or contained in any Act of Congress in force on December 29, 1970.

(11) The term "Committee" means the National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health established under this chapter.

(12) The term "Director" means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

(13) The term "Institute" means the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health established under this chapter.

(14) The term "Workmen's Compensation Commission" means the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws established under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 91-596, § 3, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1591.)

TERMINATION OF ADVISORY COMMITTEES

Advisory committees in existence on January 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the two-year period following January 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such two-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law, see section 14 of Pub. L. 92-463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employ

ees.

§ 653. Geographic applicability; judicial enforcement; applicability to existing standards; report to Congress on duplication and coordination of Federal laws; workmen's compensation law or common law or statutory rights, duties, or liabilities of employers and employees unaffected

(a) This chapter shall apply with respect to employment performed in a workplace in a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands,

American Samoa, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Lake Island, Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act [43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.), Johnston Island, and the Canal Zone. The Secretary of the Interior shall, by regulation, provide for judicial enforcement of this chapter by the courts established for areas in which there are no United States district courts having jurisdiction.

(b)(1) Nothing in this chapter shall apply to working conditions of employees with respect to which other Federal agencies, and State agencies acting under section 2021 of title 42, exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards or regulations affecting occupational safety or health.

(2) The safety and health standards promulgated under the Act of June 30, 1936, commonly known as the Walsh-Healey Act [41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.), the Service Contract Act of 1965 [41 U.S.C. 351 et seq.], Public Law 91-54, Act of August 9, 1969, Public Law 85-742, Act of August 23, 1958, and the National Foundation on Arts and Humanities Act [20 U.S.C. 951 et seq.] are superseded on the effective date of corresponding standards, promulgated under this chapter, which are determined by the Secretary to be more effective. Standards issued under the laws listed in this paragraph and in effect on or after the effective date of this chapter shall be deemed to be occupational safety and health standards issued under this chapter, as well as under such other Acts.

(3) The Secretary shall, within three years after the effective date of this chapter, report to the Congress his recommendations for legislation to avoid unnecessary duplication and to achieve coordination between this chapter and other Federal laws.

(4) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to supersede or in any manner affect any workmen's compensation law or to enlarge or diminish or affect in any other manner the common law or statutory rights, duties, or liabilities of employers and employees under any law with respect to injuries, diseases, or death of employees arising out of, or in the course of, employment.

(Pub. L. 91-596, § 4, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1592.)

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§ 1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1331 of Title 43 and Tables.

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (a), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

The Act of June 30, 1936, commonly known as the Walsh-Healey Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is act June 30, 1936, ch. 881, 49 Stat. 2036, as amended, which is classified generally to section 35 et seq. of Title 41, Public Contracts. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 35 of Title 41 and Tables. See section 262 of this title.

The Service Contract Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 89-286, Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1034, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 6 (§ 351 et seq.) of Title 41, Public Contracts. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 351 of Title 41 and Tables.

Pub. L. 91-54, Act of August 9, 1969, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 91-54, Aug. 9, 1969, 83 Stat. 96, which enacted section 333 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and amended section 2 of Pub. L. 87-581, Aug. 13, 1962, 76 Stat. 357, set out as a note under section 327 of Title 40. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Pub. L. 85-742, Act of August 23, 1958, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 85-742, Aug. 23, 1958, 72 Stat. 835, which amended section 941 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 941 of Title 33. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 89-209, Sept. 29, 1965, 79 Stat. 845, as amended, known as the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§ 951 et seq.) of chapter 26 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 20 and Tables.

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), (3), is the effective date of Pub. L. 91-596, which is 120 days after Dec. 29, 1970, see section 34 of Pub. L. 91-596, set out as an Effective Date note under section 651 of this title.

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 673 of this title; title 15 section 2608.

§ 654. Duties of employers and employees

(a) Each employer

(1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees;

(2) shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this chapter.

(b) Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules, regulations, and orders issued pursuant to this chapter which are applicable to his own actions and conduct.

(Pub. L. 91-596, § 5, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1593.)

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in sections 658, 666 of this title.

§ 655. Standards

(a) Promulgation by Secretary of national consensus standards and established Federal standards; time for promulgation; conflicting standards Without regard to chapter 5 of title 5 or to the other subsections of this section, the Secretary shall, as soon as practicable during the period beginning with the effective date of this chapter and ending two years after such date, by rule promulgate as an occupational safety or health standard any national consensus standard, and any established Federal standard,

unless he determines that the promulgation of such a standard would not result in improved safety or health for specifically designated employees. In the event of conflict among any such standards, the Secretary shall promulgate the standard which assures the greatest protection of the safety or health of the affected employees.

(b) Procedure for promulgation, modification, or revocation of standards

The Secretary may by rule promulgate, modify, or revoke any occupational safety or health standard in the following manner:

(1) Whenever the Secretary, upon the basis of information submitted to him in writing by an interested person, a representative of any organization of employers or employees, a nationally recognized standards-producing organization, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or a State or political subdivision, or on the basis of information developed by the Secretary or otherwise available to him, determines that a rule should be promulgated in order to serve the objectives of this chapter, the Secretary may request the recommendations of an advisory committee appointed under section 656 of this title. The Secretary shall provide such an advisory committee with any proposals of his own or of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, together with all pertinent factual information developed by the Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services, or otherwise available, including the results of research, demonstrations, and experiments. An advisory committee shall submit to the Secretary its recommendations regarding the rule to be promulgated within ninety days from the date of its appointment or within such longer or shorter period as may be prescribed by the Secretary, but in no event for a period which is longer than two hundred and seventy days.

(2) The Secretary shall publish a proposed rule promulgating, modifying, or revoking an occupational safety or health standard in the Federal Register and shall afford interested persons a period of thirty days after publication to submit written data or comments. Where an advisory committee is appointed and the Secretary determines that a rule should be issued, he shall publish the proposed rule within sixty days after the submission of the advisory committee's recommendations or the expiration of the period prescribed by the Secretary for such submission.

(3) On on before the last day of the period provided for the submission of written data or comments under paragraph (2), any interested person may file with the Secretary written objections to the proposed rule, stating the grounds therefor and requesting a public hearing on such objections. Within thirty days after the last day for filing such objections, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice specifying the occupational safety or health standard to which objections have been filed and a hearing requested, and specifying a time and place for such hearing.

(4) Within sixty days after the expiration of the period provided for the submission of written data or comments under paragraph (2), or within sixty days after the completion of any hearing held under paragraph (3), the Secretary shall issue a rule promulgating, modifying, or revoking an occupational safety or health standard or make a determination that a rule should not be issued. Such a rule may contain a provision delaying its effective date for such period (not in excess of ninety days) as the Secretary determines may be necessary to insure that affected employers and employees will be informed of the existence of the standard and of its terms and that employers affected are given an opportunity to familiarize themselves and their employees with the existence of the requirements of the standard.

(5) The Secretary, in promulgating standards dealing with toxic materials or harmful physical agents under this subsection, shall set the standard which most adequately assures, to the extent feasible, on the basis of the best available evidence, that no employee will suffer material impairment of health or functional capacity even if such employee has regular exposure to the hazard dealt with by such standard for the period of his working life. Development of standards under this subsection shall be based upon research, demonstrations, experiments, and such other information as may be appropriate. In addition to the attainment of the highest degree of health and safety protection for the employee, other considerations shall be the latest available scientific data in the field, the feasibility of the standards, and experience gained under this and other health and safety laws. Whenever practicable, the standard promulgated shall be expressed in terms of objective criteria and of the performance desired.

(6)(A) Any employer may apply to the Secretary for a temporary order granting a variance from a standard or any provision thereof promulgated under this section. Such temporary order shall be granted only if the employer files an application which meets the requirements of clause (B) and establishes that (i) he is unable to comply with a standard by its effective date because of unavailability of professional or technical personnel or of materials and equipment needed to come into compliance with the standard or because necessary construction or alteration of facilities cannot be completed by the effective date, (ii) he is taking all available steps to safeguard his employees against the hazards covered by the standard, and (iii) he has an effective program for coming into compliance with the standard as quickly as practicable. Any temporary order issued under this paragraph shall prescribe the practices, means, methods, operations, and processes which the employer must adopt and use while the order is in effect and state in detail his program for coming into compliance with the standard. Such a temporary order may be granted only after notice to employees and an opportunity for a hearing: Provided, That the Secretary may issue one interim order to be effective until a decision is made on the basis of the hearing. No temporary order may be in effect for longer than the period needed by the em

ployer to achieve compliance with the standard or one year, whichever is shorter, except that such an order may be renewed not more than twice (I) so long as the requirements of this paragraph are met and (II) if an application for renewal is filed at least 90 days prior to the expiration date of the order. No interim renewal of an order may remain in effect for longer than 180 days.

(B) An application for a temporary order under this paragraph (6) shall contain:

(i) a specification of the standard or portion thereof from which the employer seeks a variance,

(ii) a representation by the employer, supported by representations from qualified persons having firsthand knowledge of the facts represented, that he is unable to comply with the standard or portion thereof and a detailed statement of the reasons therefor,

(iii) a statement of the steps he has taken and will take (with specific dates) to protect employees against the hazard covered by the standard,

(iv) a statement of when he expects to be able to comply with the standard and what steps he has taken and what steps he will take (with dates specified) to come into compliance with the standard, and

(v) a certification that he has informed his employees of the application by giving a copy thereof to their authorized representative, posting a statement giving a summary of the application and specifying where a copy may be examined at the place or places where notices to employees are normally posted, and by other appropriate means.

A description of how employees have been informed shall be contained in the certification. The information to employees shall also inform them of their right to petition the Secretary for a hearing.

(C) The Secretary is authorized to grant a variance from any standard or portion thereof whenever he determines, or the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies, that such variance is necessary to permit an employer to participate in an experiment approved by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services designed to demonstrate or validate new and improved techniques to safeguard the health or safety of workers.

(7) Any standard promulgated under this subsection shall prescribe the use of labels or other appropriate forms of warning as are necessary to insure that employees are apprised of all hazards to which they are exposed, relevant symptoms and appropriate emergency treatment, and proper conditions and precautions of safe use or exposure. Where appropriate, such standard shall also prescribe suitable protective equipment and control or technological procedures to be used in connection with such hazards and shall provide for monitoring or measuring employee exposure at such locations and intervals, and in such manner as may be necessary for the protection of employees. In addition, where appropriate, any such standard shall prescribe the type and frequency of medical examinations or other tests which shall be

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