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§ 1781. Transmittal of letter rogatory or request

(a) The Department of State has power, directly, or through suitable channels

(1) to receive a letter rogatory issued, or request made, by a foreign or international tribunal, to transmit it to the tribunal, officer, or agency in the United States to whom it is addressed, and to receive and return it after execution; and

(2) to receive a letter rogatory issued, or request made, by a tribunal in the United States, to transmit it to the foreign or international tribunal, officer, or agency to whom it is addressed, and to receive and return it after execution.

(b) This section does not preclude—

(1) the transmittal of a letter rogatory or request directly from a foreign or international tribunal to the tribunal, officer, or agency in the United States to whom it is addressed and its return in the same manner; or

(2) the transmittal of a letter rogatory or request directly from a tribunal in the United States to the foreign or international tribunal, officer, or agency to whom it is addressed and its return in the same manner.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 948; Oct. 3, 1964, Pub. L. 88-619, § 8(a), 78 Stat. 996.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 653 (R.S. § 875; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, § 1, 19 Stat. 241; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, § 291, 36 Stat. 1167).

Word "officer" was substituted for "commissioner' to obviate uncertainty as to the person to whom the letters or commissioned may be issued.

The third sentence of section 653 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., providing for admission of testimony "so taken and returned" without objection as to the method of return, was omitted as unnecessary. Obviously, if the method designated by Congress is followed, it cannot be objected to.

The last sentence of section 653 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to letters rogatory from courts of foreign countries, is incorporated in section 1782 of this title.

The revised section extends the provisions of section 653 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which applied only to cases wherein the United States was a party or was interested, so as to insure a uniform method of taking foreign depositions in all cases.

Words "courts of the United States" were inserted to make certain that the section is addressed to the Federal rather than the State courts as obviously intended by Congress.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1964-Pub. L. 88-619 substituted provisions authorizing the Department of State to transmit a letter rogatory or request by a foreign or international tribunal, or by a tribunal in the United States, to the tribunal, officer or agency in the United States or its foreign or international counterpart, to whom addressed, and to return it after execution, and providing that this section does not preclude direct transmission of letters rogatory or requests between interested tribunals, officers or agencies of foreign, international and of United States origin, for provisions authorizing United States ministers or consuls, whenever a United States court issues letters rogatory or a commission to take a deposition, to receive the executed letters or commissions from foreign courts or officers, endorse them with the place and date of receipt and any

change in the deposition, and transmit it to the clerk of the issuing court in the same manner as his official dispatches, in the text and "Transmittal of letter rogatory or request" for "Foreign witnesses" in the catchline.

FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

Persons before whom depositions may be taken in foreign countries, see rule 28, Appendix to this title.

§ 1782. Assistance to foreign and international tribunals and to litigants before such tribunals

(a) The district court of the district in which a person resides or is found may order him to give his testimony or statement or to produce a document or other thing for use in a proceeding in a foreign or international tribunal. The order may be made pursuant to a letter rogatory issued, or request made, by a foreign or international tribunal or upon the application of any interested person and may direct that the testimony or statement be given, or the document or other thing be produced, before a person appointed by the court. By virtue of his appointment, the person appointed has power to administer any necessary oath and take the testimony or statement. The order may prescribe the practice and procedure, which may be in whole or part the practice and procedure of the foreign country or the international tribunal, for taking the testimony or statement or producing the document or other thing. To the extent that the order does not prescribe otherwise, the testimony or statement shall be taken, and the document or other thing produced, in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

A person may not be compelled to give his testimony or statement or to produce a document or other thing in violation of any legally applicable privilege.

(b) This chapter does not preclude a person within the United States from voluntarily giving his testimony or statement, or producing a document or other thing, for use in a proceeding in a foreign or international tribunal before any person and in any manner acceptable to him.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 949; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 93, 63 Stat. 103; Oct. 3, 1964, Pub. L. 88-619, § 9(a), 78 Stat. 997.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
1948 ACT

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 649–653, 701, 703, 704 (R.S. §§ 871-875, 4071, 4073, 4074; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, § 1, 19 Stat. 241; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, § 291, 36 Stat. 1167; June 25, 1936, ch. 804, 49 Stat. 1921).

Sections 649-652 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., applied only to the District of Columbia and contained detailed provisions for issuing subpoenas, payment of witness fees and procedure for ordering and taking depositions. These matters are all covered by Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rules 26-32.

Provisions in sections 649-652 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to the taking of testimony in the District of Columbia for use in State and Territorial courts were omitted as covered by section 14-204 of the District of Columbia Code, 1940 ed., and Rules 26 et seq., and 46 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Only the last sentence of section 653 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is included in this revised section. The remaining provisions relating to depositions of witnesses in foreign countries form the basis of section 1781 of this title.

Sections 701, 703, and 704 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were limited to "suits for the recovery of money or property depending in any court in any foreign country with which the United States are at peace, and in which the government of such foreign country shall be a party or shall have an interest."

The revised section omits this limitation in view of the general application of the last sentence of section 653 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., consolidated herein. The improvement of communications and the expected growth of foreign commerce will inevitably increase litigation involving witnesses separated by wide distances.

Therefore the revised section is made simple and clear to provide a flexible procedure for the taking of depositions. The ample safeguards of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rules 26-32, will prevent misuse of this section.

The provisions of section 703 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for punishment of disobedience to subpoena or refusal to answer is covered by Rule 37(b)(1) of Federal Rules or Civil Procedure.

The provisions of section 704 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with respect to fees and mileage of witnesses are covered by Rule 45(c) of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes were made in phraseology.

1949 ACT

This amendment corrects restrictive language in section 1782 of title 28, U.S.C., in conformity with original law and permits depositions in any judicial proceeding without regard to whether the deponent is "residing" in the district or only sojourning there.

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (a), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

AMENDMENTS

1964-Pub. L. 88-619 substituted provisions which empowered district courts to order residents to give testimony or to produce documents for use in a foreign or international tribunal, pursuant to a letter rogatory, or request, of a foreign or international tribunal or upon application of any interested person, and to direct that the evidence be presented before a person appointed by the court, provided that such person may administer oaths and take testimony, that the evidence be taken in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure unless the order prescribes using the procedure of the foreign or international tribunal, that a person may not be compelled to give legally privileged evidence, and that this chapter doesn't preclude a person from voluntarily giving evidence for use in a foreign or international tribunal, for provisions permitting depositions of witnesses within the United States for use in any court in a foreign country with which the United States was at peace to be taken before a person authorized to administer oaths designated by the district court of the district where the witness resides or is found, and directing that the procedure used be that generally used in courts of the United States, in the text, and "Assistance to foreign and international tribunals and to litigants before such tribunals" for "Testimony for use in foreign countries", in the catchline.

1949-Act May 24, 1949, struck out the word "residing" following "witness", and substituted "Judicial proceeding" for "civil action" following "to be used in any".

CROSS REFERENCES

Fees of witnesses in the United States courts, see section 1821 of this title.

Letters rogatory from United States courts, see section 1781 of this title.

§ 1783. Subpoena of person in foreign country

(a) A court of the United States may order the issuance of a subpoena requiring the appearance as a witness before it, or before a person or body designated by it, of a national or resident of the United States who is in a foreign country, or requiring the production of a specified document or other thing by him, if the court finds, that particular testimony or the production of the document or other thing by him is necessary in the interest of justice, and, in other than a criminal action or proceeding, if the court finds, in addition, that it is not possible to obtain his testimony in admissible form without his personal appearance or to obtain the production of the document or other thing in any other manner.

(b) The subpoena shall designate the time and place for the appearance or for the production of the document or other thing. Service of the subpoena and any order to show cause, rule, judgment, or decree authorized by this section or by section 1784 of this title shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to service of process on a person in a foreign country. The person serving the subpoena shall tender to the person to whom the subpoena is addressed his estimated necessary travel and attendance expenses, the amount of which shall be determined by the court and stated in the order directing the issuance of the subpoena. (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 949; Oct. 3, 1964, Pub. L. 88-619, § 10(a), 78 Stat. 997.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 711, 712, and 713 (July 3, 1926, ch. 762, §§ 1-3, 44 Stat. 835). Word "resident" was substituted for "or domiciled therein." (See reviser's note under section 1391 of this title.)

Words "or any assistant or district attorney acting under him," after "Attorney General" in section 712 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted, since, in any event, the approval of the Attorney General would be required. (See section 507 of this title.) Changes were made in phraseology.

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

AMENDMENTS

1964-Pub. L. 88-619 amended section generally, and among other changes, authorized a United States court to issue a subpoena to require the appearance of a witness before it or a person or body designated by it, and the production of documents or other tangible evidence, when necessary in the interest of justice, and in other than criminal actions or proceedings, if the court finds, in addition, that its not possible to obtain admissible evidence in any other manner, and provided that the procedure relating to the subpoena shall be in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, and deleted provisions which authorized the issuance of a subpoena when a personally notified individual failed to appear to testify pursuant to letter rogatory, or failed to answer any question he would have to answer in any examination before the court or if such person was beyond United States jurisdiction

and the testimony was desired by the Attorney General in a criminal proceeding, provided that the subpoena issue to any United States consul, that the consul make personal service of the subpoena and of any order, rule, judgment or decree, that he make return of the subpoena and tender expenses to the witness, and substituted "person" for "witness" in the catchline.

FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

Civil case, subpoena of witness in foreign country, see Rule 45, Appendix to this title.

FEDERAL RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE Criminal case, subpoena of witness in foreign country, see Rule 17 Title 18, Appendix, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

RULES OF THE United States Claims Court Subpoena to witness in foreign country, see rule 45, Appendix to this title.

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1784 of this title.

§ 1784. Contempt

(a) The court of the United States which has issued a subpoena served in a foreign country may order the person who has failed to appear or who has failed to produce a document or other thing as directed therein to show cause before it at a designated time why he should not be punished for contempt.

(b) The court, in the order to show cause, may direct that any of the person's property within the United States be levied upon or seized, in the manner provided by law or court rules governing levy or seizure under execution, and held to satisfy any judgment that may be rendered against him pursuant to subsection (d) of this section if adequate security, in such amount as the court may direct in the order, be given for any damage that he might suffer should he not be found in contempt. Security under this subsection may not be required of the United States.

(c) A copy of the order to show cause shall be served on the person in accordance with section 1783(b) of this title.

(d) On the return day of the order to show cause or any later day to which the hearing may be continued, proof shall be taken. If the person is found in contempt, the court, notwithstanding any limitation upon its power generally to punish for contempt, may fine him not more than $100,000 and direct that the fine and costs of the proceedings be satisfied by a sale of the property levied upon or seized, conducted upon the notice required and in the manner provided for sales upon execution. (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 949; Oct. 3, 1964, Pub. L. 88-619, § 11, 78 Stat. 998.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 714, 715, 716, 717, and 718 (July 3, 1926, ch. 762, §§ 4-8, 44 Stat. 836). Sections 714-718 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were consolidated, since all relate to contempt by a witness served personally in a foreign country.

The last sentence omits specific reference to section 118 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., now incorporated in section 1655 of this title, which provides for the

method of opening judgments rendered on publication of process. (See also Rule 60(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.)

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1964-Pub. L. 88-619 amended section generally, and among other changes, authorized the court to order a person to show cause for failing to produce a document or other thing in subsec. (a), provided that a copy of the order to show cause shall be served in accordance with section 1783(b) of this title, and deleted provisions requiring the marshal making levy or seizure to forward to any United States consul in the country where the witness may be, a copy of the order and a request for its personal service, and to cause publication of the order in the district where the issuing court sits, in subsec. (c), and deleted provisions in subsec. (d) permitting any judgment rendered upon service by publication only to be opened for answer within one year.

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RULES OF EVIDENCE

Evidence, see Rule 26, Title 18, Appendix, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates, Appendix to this title.

Expert witnesses, see Art. VII, Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates.

CROSS REFERENCES

Criminal cases, witnesses and evidence, see sections 3481 et seq. of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This chapter is referred to in title 11 section 503. § 1821. Per diem and mileage generally; subsistence

(a)(1) Except as otherwise provided by law, a witness in attendance at any court of the United States, or before a United States Magistrate, or before any person authorized to take his deposition pursuant to any rule or order of a court of the United States, shall be paid the fees and allowances provided by this section.

(2) As used in this section, the term "court of the United States" includes, in addition to the courts listed in section 451 of this title, any court created by Act of Congress in a territory which is invested with any jurisdiction of a district court of the United States.

(b) A witness shall be paid an attendance fee of $30 per day for each day's attendance. A witness shall also be paid the attendance fee for the time necessarily occupied in going to and returning from the place of attendance at the beginning and end of such attendance or at any time during such attendance.

(c)(1) A witness who travels by common carrier shall be paid for the actual expenses of travel on the basis of the means of transportation reasonably utilized and the distance necessarily traveled to and from such witness's residence by the shortest practical route in going to and returning from the place of attendance. Such a witness shall utilize a common carrier at the most economical rate reasonably available. A receipt or other evidence of actual cost shall be furnished.

(2) A travel allowance equal to the mileage allowance which the Administrator of General Services has prescribed, pursuant to section 5704 of title 5, for official travel of employees of the Federal Government shall be paid to each witness who travels by privately owned vehicle. Computation of mileage under this paragraph shall be made on the basis of a uniformed table of distances adopted by the Administrator of General Services.

(3) Toll charges for toll roads, bridges, tunnels, and ferries, taxicab fares between places of lodging and carrier terminals, and parking fees (upon presentation of a valid parking receipt), shall be paid in full to a witness incurring such expenses.

(4) All normal travel expenses within and outside the judicial district shall be taxable as costs pursuant to section 1920 of this title.

(d)(1) A subsistence allowance shall be paid to a witness (other than a witness who is incarcerated) when an overnight stay is required at the place of attendance because such place is so far

removed from the residence of such witness as to prohibit return thereto from day to day.

(2) A subsistence allowance for a witness shall be paid in an amount not to exceed the maximum per diem allowance prescribed by the Administrator of General Services, pursuant to section 5702(a) of title 5, for official travel in the area of attendance by employees of the Federal Government.

(3) A subsistence allowance for a witness attending in an area designated by the Administrator of General Services as a high-cost area shall be paid in an amount not to exceed the maximum actual subsistence allowance prescribed by the Administrator, pursuant to section 5702(c)(B) of title 5, for official travel in such area by employees of the Federal Government.

(4) When a witness is detained pursuant to section 3149 of title 18 for want of security for his appearance, he shall be entitled for each day of detention when not in attendance at court, in addition to his subsistence, to the daily attendance fee provided by subsection (b) of this section.

(e) An alien who has been paroled into the United States for prosecution, pursuant to section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(5)), or an alien who either has admitted belonging to a class of aliens who are deportable or has been determined pursuant to section 242(b) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1252(b)) to be deportable, shall be ineligible to receive the fees or allowances provided by this section.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 950; May 10, 1949, ch. 96, 63 Stat. 65; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 94, 63 Stat. 103; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, § 51(a), 65 Stat. 727; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, § 45, 68 Stat. 1242; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 826, 70 Stat. 798; Mar. 27, 1968, Pub. L. 90-274, § 102(b), 82 Stat. 62; Oct. 27, 1978, Pub. L. 95-535, § 1, 92 Stat. 2033.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

1948 ACT

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 600c, section 1115(a) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940, Internal Revenue Code, and section 11-1514 of the D.C. Code, 1940 ed. (R.S. §§ 823, 848; Apr. 26, 1926, ch. 183, § 3, 44 Stat. 324; May 17, 1932, ch. 190, 47 Stat. 158; June 25, 1936, ch. 804, 49 Stat. 1921; Feb. 10, 1939, ch. 2, § 1115(a), 53 Stat. 160; Dec. 24, 1942, ch. 825, § 1, 56 Stat. 1088.

Section consolidates part of section 600c of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with section 1115(a) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 11-1514 of the D.C. Code, 1940 ed.

Words "or person taking his deposition pursuant to any order of a court of the United States" were added to cover that circumstance.

Reference in section 600c of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 11-1514 of the D.C. Code, 1940 ed., to the district courts of Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia, were omitted as covered by the words "any court of the United States".

Provision of section 600c of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for payment of witnesses is incorporated in section 1825 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT

By Senate amendments, all provisions relating to the Tax Court were eliminated. Therefore, as finally enacted, section 1115(a) of Title 26, U.S.C., Internal Revenue Code, was not one of the sources of this section. However, no change in the text of this section was necessary. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559.

1949 ACT

This section restores certain provisions of the original statute, R.S. § 848, which were inadvertently omitted from revised title 28, U.S.C., § 1821.

AMENDMENTS

1978-Pub. L. 95-535 increased the daily witness attendance fee from $20 to $30, substituted provisions relating to compensation for the actual expenses of travel based on the form of transportation used, to a travel allowance equal to the mileage allowance under section 5704 of Title 5 for a witness travelling by privately owned vehicle, and to tolls, taxi fares, and parking fees for provisions that a witness would receive 10 cents per mile and that mileage computation would be based on a uniform table of distances regardless of the mode of travel employed, provisions relating to a subsistence allowance in amounts not to exceed those which Government employees receive for official travel for provisions that such subsistence allowance would be $16 per day, provisions relating to a witness detained for want of security for his appearance being entitled to the daily attendance fee in addition to subsistence for provisions that such a witness would be entitled to $1 per day in addition to his subsistence, and added provisions defining "court of the United States" and relating to travel expenses being taxable as costs and to certain aliens being ineligible to receive fees and allowances.

1968-Pub. L. 90-274 increased the per diem allowance from $4 to $20, increased the mileage allowance from 8 cents per mile to 10 cents per mile, increased the daily subsistence allowance from $8 to $16, and directed that witnesses in the district courts for the districts of the Canal Zone, Guam, and the Virgin Islands receive the same fees and allowances provided in this section for witnesses in other district courts of the United States.

1956-Act Aug. 1, 1956, substituted “, or before any person authorized to take his deposition pursuant to any rule or order” for “or person taking his disposition pursuant to any order", increased the payments for mileage from 7 to 8 cents per mile and subsistence allowance from $5 to $8 per day, and authorized the computation of mileage on the basis of a uniform table of distances adopted by the Attorney General.

1954-Act Sept. 3, 1954, removed language which had restricted section's applicability to those depositions taken pursuant to order of the court.

1951-Act Oct. 31, 1951, substituted "residences" for "residence" in that part of second sentence which precedes the first proviso in such sentence.

1949-Act May 24, 1949, added last par.

Act May 10, 1949, increased witnesses' fees from $2 to $4 per day, mileage allowance from 5 cents to 7 cents a mile, subsistence allowance from $3 to $5 per day, and added provisos.

EFFECTIVE Date of 1978 AmendmenT

Section 2 of Pub. L. 95-535 provided that: "The amendments made by this Act (amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1978, or on the date of enactment [Oct. 27, 1978], whichever occurs later."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1968 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 90-274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L.

90-274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE Subpoena, see rule 45, Appendix to this title.

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in section 604 of this title. § 1822. Competency of interested persons; share of penalties payable

Any person interested in a share of any fine, penalty or forfeiture incurred under any Act of Congress, may be examined as a witness in any proceeding for the recovery of such fine, penalty or forfeiture by any party thereto. Such examination shall not deprive the witness of his share.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 950.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on section 644 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure, R.S. § 5295. Changes were made in phraseology.

[§ 1823. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–563, § 5(a), Dec. 19, 1970, 84 Stat. 1478]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 950; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 95, 63 Stat. 103; Oct. 5, 1949, ch. 601, 63 Stat. 704; July 7, 1952, ch. 581, 66 Stat. 439; July 28, 1955, ch. 424, § 3, 69 Stat. 394, related to payment of witnesses fees to officers and employees of the United States. See sections 5515, 5537, 5751, and 6322 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§ 1824. Mileage fees under summons as both witness and juror

No constructive or double mileage fees shall be allowed by reason of any person being summoned both as a witness and a juror. (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 951.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 602 (May 27, 1908, ch. 200, § 1, 35 Stat. 377).

Words "or as a witness in two or more cases pending in the same court and triable at the same term thereof" were omitted as covered by section 1821 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE Subpoena, see rule 45, Appendix to this title.

§ 1825. Payment of fees

In any case wherein the United States or an officer or agency thereof, is a party, the United States marshal for the district shall pay all fees of witnesses on the certificate of the United States Attorney or Assistant United States Attorney, and in the proceedings before a United States Commissioner, on the certificate of such commissioner.

In all proceedings, in forma pauperis, for a writ of habeas corpus or in proceedings under section 2255 of this title, the United States marshal for the district shall pay all fees of witnesses for the party authorized to proceed in

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