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Hearings were held concerning the traffic in pornography. Loopholes in the existing laws, which enabled this traffic to flourish, were closed by means of Federal legislation. Many of the major operators in this field have since been arrested or put out of business.
A series of hearings were held on the interstate baby-selling racket, the effect of television on juvenile delinquency. I am happy to report in that connection-and also in motion pictures-in these connections that the new motion picture code is certainly an improvement in lessening and tightening up the code on unnecessary brutality and in other respects, and also that there has been, I think, some improvement on a self-action basis by the television industry on the type of pictures they have been showing.
We have held hearings on youth employment, delinquency among the Indians, where Senator Langer has taken the load, held many hearings in many parts of the country, and there has been a great improvement in the treatment and facilities for Indian children and Indians generally in the various reservations, in the fields of health, education, recreational opportunities, as a result of Senator Langer's hearings and great interest in the problems of Indians.
In addition, staff studies were conducted on venereal disease among juveniles, care and treatment in juvenile institutions, juvenile courts and the handling of delinquents, and education.
The overall impact of these hearings, studies, and reports has resulted in not only constructive legislation on a State and Federal level, but in the dissemination of information on the local community level, enabling these communities to more effectively come to grips with many of the problems leading to juvenile delinquency.
The last hearings we held in Newark last week dealt with a new problem, as far as juveniles are concerned, and that is, there has been a substantial increase in the confidence game, in the victimizing of elderly people, taking their life's earnings, in which an increasing number of juveniles is being used at the present time, and we have one witness today who was supposed to have testified in Newark but could not get there, who will testify on this subject matter today.
The present hearing, dealing with narcotics, is the result of a staff study and survey made during the past 3 years. Upon the recommendations of the Attorney General and Mr. Bennett, we are not going to have some of the witnesses from some of the Federal institutions. It is their feeling that it is not in the best interest of their rehabilitation, and we have abided by their decision.
But we will have other witnesses who will present their cases. Representatives of the subcommittee have visited many of the centers where drug addicts are being treated in the United States. Many addicts, both in and out of institutions, have been interviewed. Police officials, experts in the field of drug addiction, and social workers have been consulted.
This study has been directed at the treatment and rehabilitation aspect of the juvenile drug problem, and to assist the effort to further develop an effective program to combat juvenile drug addiction.
A Senate subcommittee headed by Senator Price Daniel, of Texas, has just completed a thorough and exhaustive study of many of the facets of the narcotics problem, and has succeeded in making more rigorous the laws relating to the sale and distribution of narcotics in
the United States. The work of this subcommittee has been a continuation of the work done by Senator Daniel's subcommittee, with special emphasis on the treatment of drug addicts under the age of 21.
We will be especially concerned today with learning whether a juvenile addict, as well as all addicts, can be effectively treated and cured and turned into a useful citizen. Some persons subscribe to the view that once a person becomes addicted, it is imposible to cure him permanently of the habit.
Witnesses will tell us today about the results of some very hopeful and enlightening recent studies made concerning the possibility of curing drug addicts.
The subcommittee will also examine existing treatment facilities and the program within these facilities to determine their present adequacy and effectiveness in meeting the addiction problem. An effort will be made to learn whether there is an adequate after-care and follow-through program from the existing treatment centers.
It is axiomatic that a constructive treatment program requires an intelligent and diligent after-care program to assist and guide the individual after he has left the treatment center.
Witnesses who will be heard today will include leaders in psychiatry and medicine who have had vast experience in the drug addiction field, as well as addicts who have been exposed to institutional treatment for drug addiction.
It is the subcommittee's desire that today's hearing will stimulate the expansion and improvement of the treatment facilities throughout the United States for juvenile, as well as all, drug addicts.
Law enforcement standing alone cannot solve the narcotics problem. Only through the combination of a sound enforcement program with a sound treatment program will the vicious narcotics traffic be completely defeated.
Senator Langer, do you want to add any thing to the statement? Senator LANGER. Nothing, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman KEFAUVER. Mr. Mitler, our special counsel, will conduct the hearings today. He is on my left.
Mr. Bobo, our chief counsel, is on Mr. Mitler's left.
Mr. Mitler, will you proceed.
Mr. MITLER. I first want to introduce into the record Senate Resolution 173, the resolution authorizing the existence of the committee, at this time.
Chairman KEFAUVER. Let it be made a part of the record; and also what else, Mr. Mitler?
Mr. MITLER. Also the resolution signed by the five members of the subcommittee, authorizing and permitting the holding of these hearings today.
Chairman KEFAUVER. Let these be made a part of the record.
(The Senate resolution, and subcommittee resolution were marked "Exhibits 1 and 2," and read as follows:)
[S. Res. 173, 84th Cong., 2d sess.]
Resolved, That the Committee on the Judiciary, or any duly authorized subcommittee thereof, is authorized under section 134 (a) and 136 of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, as amended, and in accordance with its jurisdiction specified by rule XXV of the Standing Rules of the Senate insofar as they
relate to the authority of the Committee on the Judiciary to conduct a full and complete study of juvenile delinquency in the United States, including (a) the extent and character of juvenile delinquency in the United States and its causes and contributing factors; (b) the adequacy of existing provisions of law, including chapter 402 and 403 of title 18 of the United States Code, in dealing with youthful offenders of Federal laws; (c) sentences imposed on, or other correctional action taken with respect to, youthful offenders by Federal courts, and (d) the extent to which juveniles are violating Federal laws relating to the sale or use of narcotics.
SEC. 2. For the purposes of this resolution, the committee, from March 1, 1956, to January 31, 1957, inclusive, is authorized to (1) make such expenditures as it deems advisable; (2) to employ upon a temporary basis, technical, clerical, and other assistants and consultants; and (3) with the prior consent of the heads of the departments or agencies concerned, and the Committee on Rules and Administration, to utilize the reimbursable services, information, facilities and personnel of any of the departments or agencies of the Government.
SEC. 3. The committee shall report its findings, together with its recommendations for legislation as it deems advisable, to the Senate at the earliest practicable date, but not later than January 31, 1957.
SEC. 4. Expenses of the committee, under this resolution, which shall not exceed $55,000, shall be paid from the contingent fund of the Senate upon vouchers approved by the chairman of the committee.
[S. Res. 303, 84th Cong., 2d sess.]
Resolved, That Senate Resolution Numbered 173, agreed to on March 20, 1956, be amended by striking out in section 4, lines 21 and 22, "Expenses of the committee, under this resolution, which shall not exceed $55,000" and inserting in lieu thereof the following: "Expenses of the committee, under this resolution which shall not exceed $80,000".
Resolved by the Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary to Study Juvenile Delinquency in the United States, That pursuant to subsection (3) of rule XXV, as amended, of the Standing Rules of the Senate (S. Res. 180, 81st Cong., 2d sess., agreed to February 1, 1950) and committee resolutions of the Committee on the Judiciary, adopted January 20, 1955, that Senator Estes Kefauver and such other members as are present are authorized to hold hearings of this subcommittee in Washington, D .C., on December 14 and 17, 1956, and such other days as may be required to complete these hearings and to take sworn testimony from witnesses.
Agreed to this 30th day of November, 1956.
THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri.
WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota.
Chairman KEFAUVER. Mr. Neeb, will you come around?
Mr. NEEB. I am very glad to see you, Senator.
Chairman KEFAUVER. Mr. Neeb is appearing here as a friendly expert in this field, who has devoted a lot of time and interest to this problem, so that he will testify in that capacity, and I do not think we need to swear you in.
I am very happy to have a telegram from my good friend, Tom Carroll, of the San Fernando Valley, who said you were going to be here. I am glad to see you here again.
Mr. NEEB. It is a pleasure to see you.
Chairman KEFAUVER. I was glad to see you at Los Angeles.
Mr. NEEB. I happened to run into Tom Carroll at the airport, and he asked me where I was going, and I told him
Senator LANGER. Senator Hayden just came in.
Won't you come up here and sit with us?
Chairman KEFAUVER. Come up here and sit right here by Senator Langer and Mr. Chumbris, who is also an associate counsel, on the right here.
We appreciate the presence of the dean of the United States Senate now, Senator Hayden of Arizona.
STATEMENT OF ROBERT A. NEEB, JR., ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Mr. MITLER. Your name is Robert Neeb?
Mr. MITLER. What is your occupation, Mr. Neeb?
Mr. NEEB. I am an attorney at law, practicing in Beverly Hills, Calif.
Mr. MITLER. And you have come here to testify before this committee, from California, to cooperate with us; is that correct?
Mr. NEEB. Yes, I have.
Mr. MITLER. Would you give us your background in connection with this particular problem?
Mr. NEEB. Well, my background, briefly, is this: I have practiced in the courts of California and the Federal courts for about 19 years, most of it in the criminal field, and I have handled many juvenile
I became interested in the juvenile problem during the World War, and became special deputy attorney general of California for the express purpose of making a juvenile delinquency survey of that State; and I believe I made the first statewide survey of juvenile delinquency in California's history. We set up at that time a department on juvenile delinquency in the attorney general's office.
Since that time, I have been in private practice, and continued to be interested in the subject. I was a special adviser to the former district attorney of Los Angeles County, Mr. Dockweiler, on the subject of juvenile delinquency. I have served on a number of boards in Los Angeles, child guidance clinics; and in 1953 the present attorney general of California appointed a statewide citizens' committee to advise with him on crime prevention and juvenile delinquency, and I had the honor to be chairman of that committee for 3 years in southern California. There are two branches; because the State is so large, it was handled in that manner.
The first subject we took up was the subject of narcotics, and we have thousands of words and hundreds of pages of testimony taken over nearly 2 years, from all of the experts on this subject in the United States, and we had the privilege of hearing from one inspector from Scotland Yard who had handled narcotics in the British Isles. But, not being satisfied with that, we went into the prisons and there took the testimony of addicts, most of whom were serving long sentences for serious crimes, all of which had been while they were on the outside, addicts.
This committee of yours, gentlemen, is a committee primarily concerning itself with juvenile delinquency, and to begin with I want to say this so you will understand our feeling:
We in California feel that the narcotics problem is almost a hundred percent a juvenile delinquency problem because of this fact: We don't find any addicts, to speak of, in California who do not give a direct history of learning about narcotics in their early teens, some as early as 13 and 14 years of age.
Mr. MITLER. Mr. Neeb, I know that you have a statement. Would you submit that for the record, please?
Mr. NEEB. Yes, I will.
Chairman KEFAUVER. Well, Mr. Neeb, you can either read your statement, or it will be printed in the record and you may summarize it and tell us about it.
Mr. NEEB. I would rather not read it. I think it is rather dull to do so, and if Mr. Mitler would ask me some questions on anything the Senators are interested in, I would be glad to try to answer them. Mr. MITLER. I will ask that your statement be incorporated in the record.
Chairman KEFAUVER. It will be printed in full in the record.
Mr. MITLER. It has been, Senator.
(Mr. Neeb's prepared statement is as follows:)
STATEMENT BY ROBERT A. NEEB, JR., ATTORNEY AT LAW, BEVERLY HILLS, CALIF.
I greatly appreciate the opportunity to appear before this committee and to present some views and recommendations based upon an intensive 2-year study in California of crime-prevention problems. This study was made by two citizens' committees appointed by California's attorney general, Edmund G. Brown, one for southern and one for northern California. I was chairman of the southern California citizens' committee, and Dr. Milton Chernin, dean of the School of Social Welfare at the University of California in Berkeley, was chairman of the northern committee.
While my specific subject is treatment for narcotic addiction, it is impossible to speak of treatment without some deference to the growing drug evil itself. Any attack on this evil must involve both control of the source and the handling of those who have fallen prey to the living death drug addiction represents.
Our California studies involved many meetings and investigations, and the taking of hundreds of pages of testimony by experts concerned with narcotics, crime prevention and law enforcement; by sociologists, psychiatrists, and medical practitioners; and by addicts themselves.
Several facts stand out in a review of these investigations and testimony. Some are contrary to public belief.
For example, it may be the common view that the addict loves the drug which masters him. The contrary is true. He hates the drug, hates his addiction, hates the peddler. He hates them as the tortured slave hates his master. But society offers him no help in breaking the chains that bind him. The bond of his addiction may lead him to theft, burglary, robbery, forgery, even to murder. These things he will do rather than face the tortures of withdrawal in jail. He cannot go to a physician, because under the law a physicias may not use drugs in treating him. Addicts have told us that, much as they might yearn to be free of heroin addiction, they cannot face the agony of sudden withdrawal.
Another fact not commonly known is that addiction is more mental than physical. Addicts who have spent months or years in jail or prisons are physically free of the drug. Their bodies no longer require it. Yet, immediately upon their release they return to the habit.
We were told by law-enforcement agents that there is no case of a heroin addict being cured. Some agents conclude that there is no use wasting time or