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ures of ability and achievement, and that the amount of each individual's scholarship each year will be based solely on his need for financial assistance to continue his education at an institution of higher education, which need shall be determined without regard to tuition, fees, and other expenses of attendance at the particular institution of higher education chosen by the individual;

“(B) that any eligible applicant who is not living in, but is domiciled in, the State is provided a reasonable opportunity to be selected for a scholarship; and

"(C) that scholarship examinations or other tests required to be taken by applicants are given, insofar as practicable, in the high school

the individual attends;
(3) provides for certification to the Commissioner of-

(A) individuals selected pursuant to the State plan for scholarships and the amounts thereof; and

“(B) the financial need of individual previously awarded such schol. arships (and the amounts, if any, of payments under their scholarship), as determined in accordance with the State standards, procedures, and

criteria established as provided in paragraph (2); “(4) provides for such fiscal control and fund accounting procedures as may be necessary to assure proper disbursement of and accounting for Federal funds paid to the State under this part; and

(5) provides for the making of such reports, in such form and containing such information, as may be reasonably necessary to enable the Commis

sioner to perform his functions under this part. "(b) In the case of any State plan which has been approved by the Commissioner, if the Commissioner, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State commission administering such plan, finds—

“(1) that the plan has been so changed that it no longer complies with the provisions of subsection (a), or

(2) that in the administration of the plan there is a failure to comply

substantially with such provisions, the Commissioner shall notify such State commission that the State will not be regarded as eligible to participate in the program under this part until he is satisfied that there is no longer any such failure to comply.

“(c) The Commissioner shall pay to each State such amounts as the Commissioner determines to be necessary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan (including reimbursement to the State for expenses which the Commissioner determines were necessary for the preparation of the State plan) approved under this part. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to make such payments.


"SEC. 227. An individual awarded a scholarship under this part may attend any institution of higher education which admits him.


“Seç. 228. In order partially to compensate institutions of higher education for expenses, in excess of student tuition and other fees, incurred by such insti. tutions in providing education to persons awarded scholarships and receiving payments with respect thereto under this part, the Commissioner shall, in accordance with regulations, pay each institution which such a person attends during the major portion of each academic year for which such person receives scholarship payments, the amount of $350. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1963, and for each of the seven succeeding years such sums as may be necessary to make such payments.


“Sec. 229. The Commissioner may arrange for the payment of the amounts due recipients of scholarships, institutions, and State commissions under this part in accordance with section 1006."

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Mr. RIBICOFF. Thank you very much, Madam Chairman. It is really a pleasure to come here before you and the members of your committee. I look forward to many appearances before this committee, because I know our Department will have many occasions to work in close cooperation with you and your committee.

I would like to introduce to you other members of our staff. Dr. Sterling M. McMurrin, the Commissioner of Education-Designate; Mr. Flynt, who has been before your committee before; Mr. Babbidge, who has been before your committee before; and also the Assistant Secretary-Designate Wilbur Cohen.

I am pleased to have this opportunity to appear before you in support of H.R. 5266.

Permit me to express my appreciation, too, for the promptness with which this committee has turned its attention to what President Kennedy has described as the "twin goals” of American education :

A new standard of excellence *** and the availability of such excellence to all who are willing and able to pursue it.

A great challenge confronts America in the field of higher education. College enrollments are expected to rise by more than 1 million in the next 5 years, an increase of about 30 percent. This so-called tidal wave of students that has already inundated our elementary and secondary schools is fast approaching the gates of the Nation's institutions of higher education. These gates should not become floodgates, holding back the flow of eager young people who aspire to selffulfillment and whose abilities the Nation so badly needs. Rather, they should be opened wide to these young people, so that our Nation can convert the challenge of growing numbers into one of the most impressive educational achievements in this Nation's long history of dedication to higher education.

To do this will require great effort on the part of all citizens. It requires, in addition to increased local, State, and private effort, immediate action by all the people, through their Federal Government. The specific actions called for are assistance to colleges and universities to help them accommodate larger numbers of students without diminishing the quality of instruction and assistance to able but needy youth who might otherwise fail to achieve the fullest development of their intellectual abilities.

It seems to us that too often discussion of proposals for Federal assistance to institutions of higher education starts from the assumption that such Federal assistance would be a departure from traditional. policy and would involve the Federal Government in new activities. This assumption is far from true; it is contradicted by a set of facts that are beyond dispute, and I think it will make our task here easier if I suggest some of those facts.

The Federal Government became significantly involved in higher education with the passage of the Morrill Act—the Land-Grant College Act-in 1862, nearly 100 years ago. In that act the Congress made possible the creation of a new class of educational institutions: colleges most of which have since developed into full universities, emphasizing instruction in agriculture and the mechanical arts. The institutions called into being by the Morrill Act—68 in all—have continued to enjoy a special relationship to the Federal Government and now are authorized to receive grants for instructional purposes totaling over $14 million annually.

While the involvement of the Federal Government in higher education is traditionally dated from the Morrill Act, it did not end there. Largely as a result of World War II and the cold war that followed, Federal activities affecting institutions of higher education have now reached the point where roughly 20 cents of every dollar spent by colleges and universities comes from Federal sources. In the area of research one of the vital functions of our higher education institutions--the President's Science Advisory Committee reported recently that the Federal Government is now by far the most important source of funds for research in the universities. In 1957-58 the Federal share in all such research was about 70 percent.

Federal funds now flow to institutions of higher education for purposes ranging from the building of dormitories to the construction of high-energy accelerators, from research into possible cures for cancer to research into better ways of teaching French, from the training of specialists in nuclear medicine to the education of college teachers of English.

In short, the question of whether the Federal Government should play a part in the enterprise of higher education is simply not a real

The Federal Government has had an important part in that enterprise for 100 years. Its part has grown dramatically in the last 20 years, and the real question that faces us, the one I shall discuss today, is What shall the Federal Government do now, in 1961, to play its part in ways that will contribute to the continued development of a strong and vital system of higher education ?

The President has recommended—and H.R. 5266 embodies this recommendation that the Federal role take the form of assistance both to institutions of higher education and to the students who seek to enroll in these institutions. For the former purpose, he has advocated a program of long-term, low-interest loans for the construction of both dormitories and academic facilities; for the latter, he has recommended a program of Federal scholarships for needy and able American youth. These are both proposals to which members of this committee have given considerable previous attention. I appear before you today, therefore, to represent the President's sense of urgency for action on these obvious areas of need.



Let me comment first on H.R. 5266 as it would aid colleges and universities directly.

The facts that support the need for prompt assistance to colleges and universities for the construction of physical facilities can be identified very specifically and briefly.

First, the Nation's colleges and universities must spend, between now and 1966, at least $8.6 billion for physical facilities, in order to accommodate increased enrollments and to provide adequate facilities for the numbers of students they now have.

Second, projections of anticipated resources for investment in physical plant by these institutions, taking into account every source of income now anticipated for this purpose, indicate that resources will fall short of facilities needs to the extent of $2.9 billion by 1965, $3.5 billion by 1966, and $5.2 billion by 1970.

It is conservatively estimated that enrollments in higher education will increase from 3,610,000 in the fall of 1960 to 6,006,000 in the fall of 1970. The accommodation of this increase of 2.4 million will cost the Nation's colleges and universities some $15.4 billion for added facilities. In addition, they must remedy present deficiencies.

The plants of our institutions are already strained to capacity. In many of them, three or four students are occuying dormitory rooms designed for two. Approximately 11 percent of the Nation's higher education physical plant is now obsolete and in urgent need of replacement, at a cost of $1 billion. Replacement and renovation costs through the next decade will add another $1 billion.

Many institutions are still using buildings donated by the Federal Government for temporary use after World War II. It is estimated that these constitute about 10 percent of all buildings currently in use on college and university campuses. The point has been reached at which the use of these buildings cannot be continued without mounting danger of serious safety hazards.

But hazards to the physical well-being of the students represent only one element of danger. A far greater danger is the eroding of quality in higher education that comes about when institutions are overcrowded, overloaded, and subjected to costs beyond their ability to find resources. This erosion of quality has already begun, and it will continue unchecked in the decade ahead unless action is taken promptly to avert it.

May I remind you that the problem of accommodating these students is not simply one of providing more chairs and more teachers in more classrooms, or of placing more beds in more dormitory rooms. Higher education grows higher as society's requirements become greater; it probes further into man's capacity for specialized skills and develops more advanced competencies than were required in earlier decades.

The Office of Education has compiled a considerable amount of data that amplify and support the conclusions cited. I would like your permission to insert in the record, Madam Chairman, at the conclusion of my remarks a memorandum on "Physical Facilities Needs of American Higher Education, 1961-70."

Mrs. GREEN. Without objection, it is so ordered.

(The document is as follows:)


EDUCATION, 1961-70



Facilities needs, like staff needs, are related specifically to enrollments, though in neither case is the relationship a direct proportion. Shifts in the proportions of resident and commuting students, of married and single students, and of graduate and undergraduate students will affect facilities needs, as will also modifications in institutional calendars, scheduling, and utilization of space. It has been pointed out that between 1959 and 1970 enrollments in higher education can be expected to increase by about 2 million full-time students. Some idea of the attendant facilities requirements may be gained by multiplying this increase by an estimated average capital investment per (additional) student; say, $6,500. The resulting total, $13 billion, represents a very rough approximation of the cost of expansion dictated solely by increased enrollments, without reference to replacement and renovation costs, or to the cost of special facilities and equipment needed for instruction or research, all of which might easily add another $6 billion. More refined methods will be used to estimate this cost more accurately and to determine the additional facilities costs which should be included.


The need to accommodate increasing numbers of students accounts for only a part of the upsurge in physical facilities requirements. The provision of special kinds of space and equipment appropriate to particular instructional functions represents a growing burden on the colleges and universities, many of which will need to replace makeshift arrangements they have had to use even in some areas of graduate instruction and research. Proper facilities for graduate level programs, it should be noted, are generally more costly than for undergraduate.

New developments in both subject matter and methods of teaching are continuously generating new needs for physical facilities. The increasing emphasis on foreign language study, for example, will require the construction of language laboratories for the application of new learning techniques. Particularly expensive space and equipment are required in the physical sciences, where knowledge of established subjects is expanding rapidly, and where whole new fields of study are evolving. The purchase and installation of a nuclear reactor today represents an investment of funds greater than would have been spent for a whole scientific establishment a half century ago.

Much attention is being focused also on new media of instruction and on new techniques in the use of special media, such as television and audiovisual devices. While these developments hold some hope for savings in instructional costs, a point we shall discuss later, we must consider also the requirements that such use could generate for specially constructed facilities.

Medical and dental training facilities are currently being utilized to capacity, but the number of physicians and dentists graduating yearly is not sufficient to maintain current standards of service to our increasing population. To maintain a satisfactory population-physician ratio of 757 to 1, the output of physicians would have to expand to 9,600 in 1970, or 2,100 over the 1960 output. It has been estimated that between 14 and 20 new medical schools will have to be built if the existing population-physician ratio is to be upheld. The financial cost involved here is great since the construction of a medical school requires a capital investment of between $10 and $20 million, depending on whether a teaching hospital is already available or must be included in the investment. The factor of urgency also enters into the consideration inasmuch as there is a lag of 10 years between the planning of a school and the production of the school's first graduating class.

Contributing further to the need for medical training facilities is the need for dental schools. According to projections of trends in the supply, the number of dentists in practice in 1975 will total only 96,000, which is about 15,000 fewer than will be needed to assure that dentists will be as widely available as now.

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