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As Benjamin C. Willis, general superintendent, Chicago Public Schools, wrote in the Nation's Schools for December 1955:

Schools have come a long way from the concept of a library as a storehouse to the present-day concept of it as a materials center and coordinating agency of the curriculum serving the entire school. But we should not rest until this concept has universal acceptance, until every school has a library and a librarian * * * and until the existing standards for school library service are brought into line with the demands of present-day education

The American Library Association assumes that the reference in this bill to the provision permitting States to expend funds for construction of classrooms and related facilities would include centralized libraries in elementary and secondary schools and that the term "equipment” would include library books and related materials. If this is not the case, the bill should be so amended.

Mr. THOMPSON. I think your assumption is correct. Miss KRETTEK. I am very happy to hear that. It is also a matter of whether or not in the capital outlay equipment would be so included, specifically materials.

We recognize further, the serious effect on the child's education of the shortage of qualified teachers. The shortage of school librarians with full professional training is just as acute and the effect of the shortage of librarians on the child's education is just as serious. For example, an intensive study being carried on at Rutgers University of 44 schools in two Middle Atlantic States reveals that in these schools alone 48.5 professional positions are needed to meet reasonable demands of service. At present, the schools are not getting them. This deficit of professional school librarians is likewise to be found generally in most of the other States.

For such reasons as these, the American Library Association is vitally concerned with any legislation which will improve the salaries of teachers, because the term "teacher" as defined in the broad educational sense includes librarians of schools. Confirmation of this statement is found in Bulletin 1958, No. 12, issued by the U.S. Office of Education, which states thatcertification requirements for school librarians reflect a general interpretation by State departments of education that school librarians are teachers, as well as librarians.

We respectfully urge, therefore, that the committee report on this legislation specify that school libraries and school librarians, in view of their instructional functions, are meant to be included in the provisions of this bill. Otherwise, we recommend that the language of the bill be amended to specifically include school libraries and school librarians.

Mr. Chairman, and members of the subcommittee, I am deeply grateful for the opportunity to appear before you today. On behalf of the American Library Association, may I urge your favorable consideration of this proposed legislation to correct deficiencies in school construction and in instructional personnel.

Mr. THOMPSON. Mr. Frelinghuysen. Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. Mr. Chairman, I would like to thank Miss Krettek very much for her testimony. We appreciate your appearing here.

I have one question in connection with this question of teachers' salaries.

If a survey were available nationwide showing that there were 20,000 librarians needed, and if the Federal Government developed a program of paying the salaries of those 20,000 librarians, do you think it would be unreasonable for them to set up some kind of standards to determine that they were adequate to discharge their responsibility?

Miss KRETTEK. If the Federal Government provided all of the salaries then I think they would be well within their rights. But I would hope that the local responsibility in salaries of librarians as in salaries of teachers, that the money would be available directly to the local government to be expended in which case the control would certainly be maintained at the local level where it definitely belongs.

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. If the Federal Government put up 100 percent of the money you would see nothing wrong in their establishing standards of adequacy, would you?

Is that what you just said?

Miss KRETTEK. Í still believe that the standard should be maintained at the State level, that the responsibility for education and libraries are definitely a part of the education belonging at the local level.

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. But the Federal Government could set up standards which must be met in order to qualify for the receipt of these Federal funds ?

Miss KRETTEK. It could but I still think it should be done at the local level.

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. You mean administered at the local level ?

Miss KRETTEK. The funds should be made available to the States to be expended by the States wherein the States would maintain the standards.

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. You mean the Federal Government would not have any say as to who should be employed?

Miss KRETTEK. Definitely not.
Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. Even though they are putting up the money?

Miss KRETTEK. That is right, the grant should be made to the States to spend in the way that is best suited for that particular State. Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. How could we determine that it would

go

to fill the 20,000 positions that the nationwide survey determined were needed ?

Miss KRETTEK. Because the survey would certainly be made by the State.

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. Not under my hypothetical case. This would be a Federal survey that resulted in Federal finding that 20,000 positions were needed.

Miss KRETTEK. If a Federal survey were being conducted and there are Federal figures available in the United States Office of Education those would be made by contacting the State departments of education. They would be the ones who would show the needs and would understand the requirements. So I still think it would be at the local level.

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. I hope you do not think the question unfair. Miss KRETTEK. No.

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. It indicates my feeling that if the Federal Government gets in for subsidies that they have the responsibility to see that the people who are receiving their bounty are adequate. Otherwise there might well be a serious waste of the Federal dollar. I think it would be a far different thing for us to get into the business of operating schools than it would be to help build them.

I am sure you understand my reason for concern.
Miss KRETTEK. Yes, sir, very much.
Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. Even though you are not equally concerned.
Thank you very much.

Miss KRETTEK. You are very welcome.
Mr. THOMPSON. Mr. Brademas.
Mr. BRADEMAS. Thank you very much.

Mr. THOMPSON. Thank you very much for the time and this very fine statement.

Miss KRETTEK. Thank you.

Mr. THOMPSON. Our next witness is Mr. James F. Daniel, Jr., representing the American Legion. Mr. Daniel, you may take the witness chair and identify yourself to the reporter.

STATEMENT OF JAMES F. DANIEL, JR., CHAIRMAN OF THE

NATIONAL AMERICANISM COMMISSION OF THE AMERICAN LEGION

Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, my name is James F. Daniel, Jr. I reside at Greenville, S.C., and I am the chairman of the National Americanism Commission of the American Legion.

I wish first to thank you on behalf of the American Legion for permitting me to submit this statement in connection with your hearings on the bills pertaining to Federal aid to education.

On the basis of its record of performance in the field of education, I respectfully submit that the American Legion is qualified to speak on this matter and that its views are worthy of serious consideration.

At the 1958 National Convention of the American Legion, the accredited delegates representing every State in the Union, our Territories and possessions, unanimously adopted Resolution 567, containing the following restatement of principles with respect to the relationship of the National Government to public education:

Whereas the Constitution of the United States is a compact between sovereign States joining together for limited purposes, with the predominant intent of reserving into the several States and to the people thereof all power, save and except those which were expressly granted to the Federal Government; and

Whereas the American Legion has always strongly adhered to the philosophy of broad, popular education for citizenship and has vigorously supported a universal, publicly supported system of primary, secondary and higher education under the complete control, authority, direction and responsibility of the respective States and school districts therein, so as to insure that every American child has the opportunity for an adequate education; and

Whereas broad, permanent programs of Federal financial appropriations for general educational purposes to State elementary or secondary schools or institutions of higher learning or for their use or benefit would inevitably result in loss of local and State control and the establishment of supervision, direction and control by Federal agencies over the expenditure of such funds; and

Whereas such Federal domination and intervention would make possible centralized thought control, propagandized and collectivized captives of our chil

dren, and the ultimate destruction of our constitutional form of government: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the 40th National Convention of the American Legion, assembled at Chicago, Ill., these 18t to 4th days of September 1958, That it does hereby adopt the following restatement of principles and policies with respect to intervention in or financial assistance to general public education in the elementary or secondary schools or State institutions of higher learning :

1. The State and local governments ought to, can and should assume and adequately take care of all needs of public elementary and secondary schools and State public institutions of higher education.

2. The States and local communities have the financial capacity to meet the proper requirements of general public education in the respective States.

3. The National Government should avoid interference, control, supervision, or direction in the educational processes, programs, activities, or systems of the respective States or local school districts, either directly or indirectly, by grantsin-aid, appropriations, gifts or loans for construction of schools, buildings or facilities, teachers' salaries, general student scholarships, equipment, or other purposes; by curriculum or program control, or by action of any officer, agency, branch, or department of the U.S. Government.

4. Under our Constitution each State is, and should be, vested with complete, sole, and final power, authority, direction, supervision, and control of every facet of public education within its borders, with the largest possible measure of home rule and autonomy delegated to the local communities.

5. It is recognized that in certain specialized or restricted programs or projects of a temporary duration, or during time of war or grave national emergency, or where it is directly necessary for the support of operational programs of Federal agencies, the Federal Government has the authority to maintain or operate its own educational institutions or programs, to appropriate funds therefor, to use grants-in-aid, or to make contracts with State or private institutions: Provided, however, That no such action should infringe upon the rights or power of the States or local communities, nor should any department, agency, branch officer,

employee of the United States in an official capacity ever exercise any direction, supervision, control, or authority over the personnel, curriculum, property, facilities, or programs of any State or local school or school system or agency or State institution of higher learning; be it further

Resolved, That the national commander and the national legislative director are hereby mandated to present the position of the American Legion, as above set forth, to the Congress of the United States and to vigorously oppose all legislation which violates these principles.

GENERAL STATEMENT

The American Legion believes that the real vitality of our country lies in decentralization of the powers of government. We have an abiding faith in private enterprise and local initiative. We are convinced of the necessity to allow each community to decide its own educational policies and programs.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIONS

1. With the Federal budget already heavily burdened, additional appropriations of millions of dollars for services, which are the responsibility of States and local communities, cannot be justified.

2. Dr. James B. Conant, one of America's best informed authorities in the field of education, concluded from a recent personal survey made on educational needs, that a large number of secondary schools should be consolidated to provide better educational facilities and opportunities for our youth. At the same time this would reduce costs of operation thereby eliminating any need for Federal funds. In a recent address before the National School Board Association in San

Francisco, Dr. Conant stated that he favors leaving it up to each community to determine what it is willing to expend for public schools.

3. In view of the many and varied educational bills introduced for consideration in the 86th Congress, It seems evident that the proponents of Federal aid to education are more concerned with obtaining large sums of money to spend indiscriminately rather than to first determine need and value of the grants provided by the 85th Congress.

CONCLUSION

Any objective analysis of the educational system in the United States will inevitably lead to the conclusion that the pending proposals for Federal aid to education are unnecessary, unreasonable, unsound, and dangerous to the preservation of local initiative and vitality. The ultimate net result of Federal aid to education is to transfer a portion of the total educational costs to the Federal budget, and to restrict local freedom of decision and action. This the American Legion definitely opposes.

Mr. THOMPSON. The committee will now adjourn until Monday, next, at which time we will hear Members of Congress testify on behalf of the various bills.

(Whereupon, at 11:12 a.m. Friday, February 27, 1959, the committee adjourned until 10 a.m., Monday, March 2, 1959.)

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