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Miss BUTLER. So I do want you to know that we are not here supporting anybody's bill. We are supporting principles and we have confidence in you fellows to do the job that is good for this country.

Mr. THOMPSON. We are very grateful to you for your statement, and I am particularly indebted to your federation for support of legislation in which we had a mutual interest last year.

Miss BUTLER. Yes, and of course cultural things are things that we are interested in and we will work for and do and support.

Mr. THOMPSON. I hope you will carry our best wishes back to your president.

Miss BUTLER. To Miss Gifford.

Mr. THOMPSON. To your organization, and express our appreciation for this fine effort.

Miss BUTLER. Thank you, and I am sure you can count on us when we give our best thinking and our support to legislation that we think is good for the majority. Mr. THOMPSON. Thank you. Miss BUTLER. Thank you for letting us come.

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. I, too, want to thank you very much for your testimony, Miss Butler. Miss BUTLER. Thank

you. Mr. BRADEMAS. Thank you very much, Miss Butler. We appreciate your coming this morning. Miss BUTLER. It was a privilege to come before you. (The information follows:)



The General Federation of Women's Clubs which was chartered by the U.S. Government in 1901 defined its purpose as an organization dedicated “to unite the women's clubs and like organizations throughout the world for the purpose of mutual benefit, and for the promotion of their common interest in education, philanthropy, public welfare, moral values, civics, and fine arts.”

During the 68 years of the organization's existence the women have worked for better education, among other things, as set out in the purpose. As evidence of the interest and work of these women I submit resolutions, which are passed by the delegate body consisting of members from all of the 15,000 clubs belonging to the general federation from every State in the Union and the Territories, by convention action.

These resolutions become the policy for action by the General Federation of Women's Clubs and we support or oppose legislation, as the case may be, in accordance with these resolutions.

In the case of Federal aid for school construction I submit first a resolution titled "Crisis in Education," passed in convention in 1908, reaffirmed in 1956, and still an active policy.


(Convention, 1908; reaffirmed, 1953) "Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs declares its belief that

"1. Education of the people is the most important function of government if democracy shall survive and should be dignified by a place in the public esteem commensurate with its importance;

“2. A minimum average standard salary for teachers should be adopted which is consistent with a proper standard of living and in line with prevailing costs of living;

"3. An improvement in standards of selection and training of teachers should be sought;

“4. Opportunities for more and better in-service training for teachers should be provided and the advantage which teachers take of these opportunities should be made a basis for (1) salary, (2) promotion, and (3) tenure;

"5. Teachers should be assured an opportunity to assume the satisfying part in community life and affairs which is open to any other citizens in any other profession;

“6. Final responsibility for securing remedial measures for problems of personnel and facilities for their schools rests upon the community, its in

dividual citizens and organized groups; and further, Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs urges member clubs in their local communities tom

"1. Assist in securing and maintaining equitable salary schedules ;

“2. Cooperate in an analysis and solution of factors which contribute to the reluctance of many desirable persons to enter the teaching profession;

“3. Participate in a nationwide recruitment program which will have as its objective a sufficient number of properly qualified and prepared teachers

for the schools of the United States." This resolution sets out the important function of government if democracy is to survive in education, and particularly stresses well-qualified and well-paid teachers.

In 1924, and reaffirmed in 1956, a resolution was passed by the general federation titled “Training Scientists” in order to have proper personnel demanded by government and industry if we are to meet world competition.


"(Convention, 1924; reaffirmed, 1956) "Whereas it is evident that there exists a critical shortage of scientists and qualified science teachers in the United States and that present facililties will not provide the trained personnel demanded by government and industry if we are to meet world competition; and

"Whereas the inability of many students to meet the requirements of courses in advanced science and mathematics when offered in high schools and colleges demonstrates the need for teaching the fundamentals of mathematics and ele mentary science at the grade school level : Therefore

Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs advocates, supports and urges member groups to participate in concerted effort to

“1. Discover special scientific aptitudes at an elementary school age through the use of testing programs;

“2. Strengthen the teaching of mathematics and science in the schools of the United States at all scholastic levels;

"3. Recruit science teachers and encourage students to major in science through the establishment of scholarships and fellowships and other incentives;

“4. Seek auxiliary teachers from the ranks of industry and from among retired scientists;

"5. Secure for local schools adequate laboratory and other necessary facilities." Another resolution which was passed at a convention of GFWC in 1900 and reaffirmed in 1956 is :


“(Convention, 1900; reafirmed, 1956) “Whereas the American philosophy of living is to give to every one of its people the opportunity to develop the best of which he is capable; and

"Whereas the future of America is dependent on the fullest development of the capabilities of the youth of our Nation, including those of superior ability, those of normal gifts and talents, and those who are socially, physically, or mentally handicapped ; and

"Whereas appropriate education, remedial treatment and rehabilitation where indicated are the most valuable and most economical methods of developing the capacities of youth with lifelong institutional care and support utilized only when the above methods have failed: Therefore

Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs urges members to initiate, promote and support programs to :

“1. Impress upon parents the fact that the home is irreplaceable in supplying the basic needs for development of well-adjusted children;

"2. Develop to the fullest extent the child with special talents and abili-. ties;

"3. Educate, treat, and rehabiltate the physically and mentally handicapped and those with behavior problems;

"4. Educate the youth in our schools as to their total responsibilities;

“5. Accept the migrant child as part of the community responsibility.” These resolutions specifically set out that GFWC “advocates, supports, and urges member groups to participate in a concerted effort to secure for local schools adequate laboratory and other necessary facilities.” This we believe includes adequate number of classrooms and housing for students (in cases of colleges and universities) as well as laboratories.

In 1933 at convention, and again in 1953, GFWC passed a resolution, “Economy in Government,” but pointed out that it would be false economy to jeopardize such services as are being rendered by the agencies of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. It is now 1959 and those agencies are pointing out that most States are short of adequate classrooms and qualified teachers.


(Convention, 1933; reaffirmed, 1953) "Whereas the General Federation of Women's Clubs has urged a program of economy for the Government of the United States which is consistent with good government and adequate services; and

"Whereas the General Federation of Women's Clubs has long advocated programs of the Government of the United States which foster and support services necessary to the education, health, and welfare of the people: Therefore

Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs again commends the elimination of waste in governmental spending, but also urges that it is false economy to jeopardize such services as now are being rendered by the agencies of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare."

The developments in scientific fields since 1933-53 surely make it more urgent that we do not longer neglect the educational opportunities for all the children of our country. I need not spell out these requirements to you gentlemenyou know them.

In 1951, under the title of “National Economy," the General Federation of Women's Clubs set out the need for Government expenditures in order of vital importance.


“Economic stabilization (convention, 1951) “Whereas the United States must meet the costly task of financing its own defense objectives and assisting other nations in joint resistance to a common enemy, a necessary task which may continue for a period of years; and

“Whereas we must make every effort to prevent change in the pattern of living resulting from defense activities from affecting disastrously the moral welfare, education, health, and economic welfare of our people, particularly our children: Therefore

Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs urges the Government of the United States to pursue a program of realistic economic stabilization, including reduced consumption where necessary, with pay-as-you-go plans of taxation; sound monetary controls; an end to the vicious spiral resulting from the contest between rising wages and rising prices; rigid scrutiny of every proposed expenditure in both nondefense and defense programs; and the utmost economy in administration; and further

Resolved, That priorities in Government expenditures be given in the following order :

“1. Defense for self and for our allies;
"2. Education;
“3. Normal functions of Government;
“4. Necessary social welfare services."

This it seems to the women of the GFWC to still be the necessary order of importance if the United States is to compete in this present day world.

And, I'll call your attention to one more resolution which passed first in 1922 in essence, was reaffirmed in 1952, and is today a motivating policy of GFWC. “STATEMENT ON SYSTEM OF FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECTS AND FEDERAL AD


“(Convention, 1922; reaffirmed, 1955) “Whereas the General Federation of Women's Clubs is deeply concerned with the serious economic, educational, and social problems facing our people and is equally concerned with some problems created by the system of Federal development, aid and assistance which has been established as part of the solution adopted for economic, educational, and social difficulties: Therefore

Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs declares its conviction that: "A. Federal development of projects :

"1. In general, the Federal Government should not be in business, particularly in competition with private enterprise, and should retire from those businesses already established as quickly as is possible without jeopardizing the public interest and without entailing unjustified sacrifice of public property and investments;

“2. It must be recognized that conditions exist, and could continue to exist, which may necessitate Federal expenditures and that there are desirable projects which private enterprise cannot develop effectively nor economically ;

“3. Federal development should include, and aid should be extended to those projects only whose beneficial results are widely distributed among the people. “B. Federal aid and assistance:

“1. In making allocations of Federal aid, the formula used should take into account:

(a) Established need ;

(b) Demonstrated effort to reach a solution with private or State and local resources ;

(C) Ability of area in question to pay (per capita wealth);

(d) The number of people affected ; 2. After a project has been approved, allocation made and funds provided, administration and control of projects using Federal aid and having local and State application should be by local and State officials; and Federal controls should be confined to financial accounting and compliance with the terms of the contract;

"3. In order to increase local and State self-sufficiency and decrease need for supplementary Federal aid, taxing power in certain suitable fields should

be left to, or returned to, the several States." We believe that part B of the resolved spells out in plain language what is needed so far as aid to school construction is concerned. Everyone admits we need more and better schools—the question appears to be how to get them. All seem to agree that the United States must train the youth of today to the extent of his capacity so he can best serve his country, if democracy is to survive. We believe this means to have enough classrooms properly equipped for every child in the country. We believe it also means a sufficient number of truly qualified teachers. We believe that local and State governments should carry the burden of education, if and when they can. But, when it is impossible for local and/or States to provide what is necessary for top standard in education it becomes the duty, and indeed, the responsibility of the Federal Government to supply what is needed. We have read the proposal as suggested by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and we think it is in line with the thinking and wishes of the membership of the GFWC. They require that States do all they can do and when and where needed the Federal Government will help. We think this proposed legislation sets out proper safeguards to keep control of education in the State, but also safeguards the States against any catastrophic disaster when unable to pay in the manner prescribed by forgiving them at the end of a 10-year period, if such States had in good faith carried out their agreements with regard to matching Federal funds for school construction. We believe it will not place into the hands of the Federal Government the controls of schools, as some have suggested. We urge you to favorably recommend this legislation to Congress and to work for the enactment of a law carrying out the full intent of this proposal.

Mr. THOMPSON. Our next witness is Germaine Krettek, the director of the national office of the American Library Association.


OFFICE, AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION Miss KRETTEK. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, my name is Germaine Krettek. I am director of the Washington office of the American Library Association, a nonprofit, professional association of more than 22,000 members, consisting of librarians, trustees, and friends of libraries interested in the development, extension, and improvement of libraries as essential factors in the educational program of the Nation. Of the association's total membership, school librarians form a substantial proportion--4,500 members.

The American Library Association registers its support for legislation such as H.R. 22 being considered by this subcommittee to provide ample and more thorough educational resources at the elementary and secondary level. The association believes in the urgent need for Federal aid for the construction of school facilities and for increasing salaries of teachers, including school librarians, with appropriate sa feguards against Federal control.

Surveys in this country have shown vividly the great lag in school construction and in teachers' salaries. International events of recent months have pointed up still further the immediate necessity of an adequate school plant and competent personnel.

The concern of the American Library Association in this problem is not new. In 1950, the council, our governing body, took formal action in support of Federal aid to public education, without Federal control, including the use of Federal funds for the construction of school buildings.

In 1957, the council stated further that it believes that our children need these buildings now and that nothing should be allowed to interfere with this construction program.

At its meeting in January of this year, the American Library Association approved this policy statement:

Federal aid to public education is needed to assist the States and their local subdivisions in establishing and maintaining adequate educational services and facilities and in equalizing educational opportunity. This assistance should also include school and library construction.

We endorse the provision of H.R. 22 (sec. 8) which insures that State and local efforts in support of education shall not be reduced. We also approve the requirement (sec. 11) that there shall be no Federal control overpolicy determination, personnel, curriculum, program of instruction, or the administration of any school or school system.

The American Library Association is interested especially in the effect which the bill will have on school libraries and school librarians.

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