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The jetty should terminate in a substantial cluster of piles, bound together, rising well out of the water, and supporting a rough structure of some description to mark the entrance.

The construction of the channel should follow up that of the jetty, beginning inside the mouth of the creek. The material from the first cut of the dredge may be thrown over the jetty; that of the remaining cuts should be towed away to a suitable dumping-ground, light-draught scows being used.

The amount of dredging necessary to make a channel 4 feet deep and 150 feet wide is about 80,000 cubic yards; but the current from the creek would aid the dredging operations so soon as the cuts had been made through the beach beyond low-water mark.

Some temporary obstruction in the present creek bed, below the new channel, might be found desirable to direct the flow at the outset. The cost of the various works above mentioned would be about as follows:

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For a 3-foot channel the jetty would be shortened about 500 feet, with a considerable reduction also in the amount of dredging. The estimate is as follows:

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The work in either case could be advantageously completed in one season, with suitable time for preparation, but might be divided between two seasons without serious increase of expense. The commercial statistics given on the accompanying schedule are from the Annual Report Chief of Engineers, 1880, pp. 588 and 589. Respectfully submitted.



Captain of Engineers,
Bvt. Lieut. Col., U. S. A.


Milford, about 18 miles by the windings of the creek from its mouth, has about 3,000 inhabitants, whose most important business interests are shipbuilding and the lumber trade. Vessels built there are of a superior stanchness. At present there are on the stocks, building, one vessel of 1,100 tons, one of 850 tons, and several of lesser tonnage.

The shipping consists of five schooners of from 50 to 75 tons, running regularly between Milford and Philadelphia, and about an equal number of transient vessels, making each eight or ten trips a year. Milford is also the center of a large wheat and fruit growing district.

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The imports are about 1,000 tons fertilizer and 2,000 tons coal, with merchandise to the value of $100,000.

Mispillion Creek is in the collection district of Delaware, Wilmington being the nearest port of entry.

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The entrance to this stream has been under improvement for the last two years, with successive appropriations of $5,000 in 1880, and $3,000 of March 3, 1881.

As stated in the last annual report, the work was put under contract in July, 1881, and completed early in August. The channel made had a length of about 600 yards, width of 75 feet, and a low-water depth of 8 feet. A further sum of $4,500 will be required to complete the construction of the channel to the full width of 100 feet, as originally projected.

In the great number of cases, a channel through shoals obstructing the entrance to a stream will need for its maintenance the protection of a dike or jetty to concentrate and direct the currents and prevent a dredged channel from filling. The material composing the shoals at the mouth of Duck Creek is in part a stiff clay, capable of resisting the action of a moderate current. It seems advisable, therefore, before estimating for permanent constructions, to complete the excavation of the channel through the shoals, and observe the subsequent current and tidal action. For this purpose an appropriation of $4,500 will be needed. This creek is in the collection district of Delaware, Wilmington, being its nearest port of entry, the revenue collected there during the past fiscal year amounting to $50,530.

There is a light-house at its entrance, the nearest fort being Fort Delaware.
Total apppropriation to June 30, 1882
Total expenditure to June 30, 1882..

$8,000 8,000

Money statement.

July 1, 1881, amount available

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882.

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881

$2,912 93

2,912 93

2,000 00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884.. 14,000 00

14,000 00

Abstract of contract entered into during fiscal year ending June 30, 1882, for improvement of Duck Creek, Delaware.

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The river and harbor act of March 3, 1881, made appropriation of $7,000 for continuing the improvement of Cohansey Creek, and further provided for a re-examination of the stream. The accompanying report of this, dated February 8, 1882, exhibits the history and present condition of the navigation.

In response to advertisement dated August 31, 1881, no proposals were received for continuing work upon the stream, and it was decided to postpone operations until it should be ascertained what action Congress would take at the ensuing session with regard to continuing the improvement.

The city authorities have notified me of their intention to lower the pipes crossing the stream, which have prevented operations in the upper part in accordance with the project.

At the date of this report no action has been taken by Congress. Cohansey Creek is in the collection district of Bridgeton, N. J., which is the nearest port of entry.

Total amount appropriated to June 30, 1882..
Total amount expended to June 30, 1882.


24, 501

Money statement.

July 1, 1881, amount available..

July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881

July 1, 1882, amount available.......

Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882.

Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1833..

$7,003 01

504 60

6, 498 41 5,000 00

11, 498 41

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884.

5,000 00 5,000 00


Philadelphia, Pa., February 8, 1882.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report on the examination of Cohansey Creek, New Jersey, in compliance with the requirements of the river and harbor act of March 3, 1881. As the stream has been under improvement for several years, and surveys have been made at various dates, no further field work was necessary than a reexamination of the localities where obstructions were known to exist, to determine what changes, if any, had occurred.

Cohansey Creek drains the northern part of Cumberland County, New Jersey, and has a navigable length of about 20 miles from the Delaware Bay, into which it discharges, to Bridgeton, lying at the head of navigation.

The entrance to the creek is across a wide flat of sand and mud, having a mean low-water depth over it of 5 feet, the rise of tide being about 6 feet. Owing to the extent of this flat, the semi-fluid character of the bottom, and the exposure to the storms of the bay, dredging operations alone would be unavailing to create a greater channel depth, and exten

sive permanent works would be needed to prevent a dredged channel from rapidly refilling. Furthermore, the existing low-water depth is only about 2 feet less than the ordinary draught of vessels trading to the creek. For these reasons no attempt has been made to deepen the entrance, which shows no indications of notable change since 1872.

The navigation upward to within a short distance of Bridgeton, though tortuous, as is usually the case with tidal streams flowing between banks of salt-water marsh, is of ample depth and capacity.

Approaching Bridgeton the depths rapidly decrease, and along the city front the bed of the stream, owing to the accumulations of sand and gravel from surface and street washings, was in 1872 nearly bare at low-water, although, owing to the favorable character of the navigation below, the rise of tide is greater than at the mouth.

The river and harbor act of that year ordered an examination, which was made in August following, and report thereafter submitted.

The original project had in view the construction of a channel 4 feet deep at mean low-water, and 130 feet wide, at an estimated cost of $30,000.

As the work progressed under successive appropriations, aggregating $24,000, it became evident that an increase in the depth of channel was necessary for the commerce of the stream, and as meanwhile the city of Bridgeton had adopted effective methods of intercepting further deposits, in June, 1880, an amended project, submitted to the Chief of Engineers and approved by him, proposed bringing the 7-foot low-water navigation from deep water below the lower steamboat wharf upward as far as the Commerce street bridge, and thence to the nail-works bridge a low-water depth of 6 feet, the channel to be 100 feet wide at its lower end and decrease to 50 feet at the upper bridge. An addition of $11,000 to the original estimate was made necessary by the change in dimensions.

At the cessation of work in October, 1880, a 7-foot low-water channel had been made to Broad Street Bridge, with an average width of 70 feet, and between Broad and Commerce Street bridges a narrower one of the same depth.

At Broad street a space was left undredged, in order not to endanger the gas and water mains of the city, which cross the creek at this point. The existence of these pipes in the bed of the stream is referred to in the annual report of the Chief of Engineers for 1880, page 590.

The depth of water over them at low-water is only 4 or 5 feet, and it was essential to the further progress of the improvement that they should be sunk to such depth as would admit of free passage of vessels without danger of striking.

The attention of the city authorities was officially invited to the matter by this office, and an urgent demand made by the citizens of Bridgeton most interested in the navigation for action by the council, but up to the present time nothing has been done. There are no engineering difficulties in the way, and $1,500 would probably cover the cost.

It appears, therefore, that in the judgment of the city council, as at present advised, the value of the improvement by the United States of the navigation above Broad street is not worth the expenditure of that sum by the city. Under these circumstances the application of the $7,000 appropriated by act of March 3, 1881, has been suspended to await the decision of the city with regard to the pipes and the further action of Congress.

In July, 1881, the re-examination required in act of March 3, 1881. was made, the results of which are shown on the accompanying tracing.

This is substantially a 7-foot low-water channel from the deep water of the creek below Stony Point upward, but of insufficient width at some points. Above the upper steamboat landing the channel dredged has shoaled somewhat in assuming its new dimensions, but exhibits good indications of permanence.

The annual report Chief of Engineers, 1881, page 790, estimates a further appropriation of $10,000 as being needed to complete the improvement in accordance with the revised estimate of 1880, which made the total cost $42,000; of which there has been appropriated $31,000; expended, $24,000; balance on hand, $7,000; required to complete, $10,000.

The expenditure of this amount is, however, contingent upon the action of the city with regard to the lowering of the pipes. Should this not be done, the balance of $7,000 now on hand would probably be most advantageously expended from the upper steamboat wharf downward, and accomplish all that is needed at the present time for the improvement of the navigation in that section of the stream.

Bridgeton is the port of entry for the collection district of the same name.

The collector reports that no great changes have taken place since the commercial statistics of the port were prepared as printed in the Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1880. The data there furnished are appended.

Respectfully submitted.



Captain of Engineers,

Brt. Lieut. Col., U. S. A.


The Cumberland Nail and Iron Company's works' consist of rolling, pipe, and nail mills, employ four hundred hands, run twenty furnaces, two sets rolls, one hundred and two nail machines, and produce yearly 100,000 kegs of nails, and 1,500,000 feet of gas-pipe; and in addition to this product, freights by water 15,000 tons coal, 8,000 tons pig-iron, 3,500 tons iron ore, and 10,000 tons furnace cinder.

The production of three glass factories, amounting to 30,000 tons, and of two fruitcanning establishments, 1,000 cords of oak and pine wood, 100,000 bushels corn, 3,000,000 shaved hoops, are shipped annually. There are received by water, and not otherwise noted, 5,000 tons anthracite coal, 2,000,000 feet lumber, and a large amount of oyster shells, lime, stone, and general merchandise

The steamer Artisan makes regular semi-weekly trips between Bridgeton and Philadelphia.

The amount of tonnage registered in the custom-house at this port is as follows: One hundred and thirty-two vessels, under 20 tons, 1,656 tons, owned in all parts of the district and engaged in the oyster trade; twenty-five small sloops and schooners, 1,000 tons; thirty coasting schooners, employed chiefly in the coal trade, 8,000 tons; one hundred schooners and sloops engaged in the oyster trade, 3,000 tons; twentyfive schooners and sloops engaged in the carrying trade between Bridgeton and Philadelphia, 2,000 tons. Total number of vessels, three hundred and twelve; total tonnage, 15,656.

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Prior to 1880 the amounts appropriated for the improvement of this stream had been applied near the mouth, in Salem Cove, and resulted

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