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John W. Gardner, Secretary
OFFICE OF EDUCATION, Harold Howe II, Commissioner

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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402

Price $4.25

gilt 12/29/7


The attached report is submitted in response to Section 402 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:

Sec. 402. The Commissioner shall conduct a survey and make a report to the President and the Congress, within two years of the enactment of this title, concerning the lack of availability of equal educational opportunities for individuals by reason of race, color, religion, or national origin in public educational institutions at all levels in the United States, its territories and possessions, and the District of Columbia.

The survey requested in this legislation has been conducted. Its major findings will be found in brief form in the summary section of this report. For those desiring more detailed information, a comprehensive presentation is provided in the eight sections of the full report. The full report also describes in detail the survey design and procedures and the types of tests used; it contains copies of the questionnaires administered to superintendents, principals, teachers, and students as part of the study.

In carrying out the survey, attention was paid to six racial and ethnic groups: Negroes, American Indians, Oriental Americans, Puerto Ricans living in the continental United States, Mexican Americans, and whites other than Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans often called “majority” or simply "white." These terms of identification are not used in the anthropological sense, but reflect social categories by which people in the United States identify themselves and are identified by others.

Stated in broadest terms, the survey addressed itself to four major questions.

The first is the extent to which the racial and ethnic groups are segregated from one another in the public schools.

The second question is whether the schools offer equal educational opportunities in terms of a number of other criteria which are regarded as good indicators of educational quality. The attempt to answer this elusive question involves describing many characteristics of the schools.

Some of these are tangible, such as numbers of laboratories, textbooks, libraries, and the like. Some have to do with the curriculums offeredacademic, commercial, vocational—and with academic practices such as the administering of aptitude and achievement tests and “tracking" by presumed ability. Other of these aspects are less tangible. They include the characteristics of the teachers found in the schools—such things as their education, amount of teaching experience, salary level, verbal ability, and indications of attitudes. The characteristics of the student bodies are also assessed, so far as is possible within the framework of the study, so that some rough descriptions can be made of the socioeconomic backgrounds of the students, the education of their parents, and the attitudes the pupils have toward themselves and their ability to affect their own destinies, as well as their academic aspirations.

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