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Now, I have made my point. I think you know on the basis of my record that when the chips are down, I will probably vote again for the continuation of Federal aid to impacted areas, but I doubt if I will do it for a 4-year straight extension.

Senator RANDOLPH. May I interrupt, Senator Morse?

Senator MORSE. Yes.

Senator RANDOLPH. You have been speaking of children and their future, which is our obligation.

I would not want to presume, but I am privileged to have friends of mine in the audience, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Feather. Perhaps at the expense of doing that which is ordinarily not done, I should just like their five children Bud, Hugh, David, Suzanne, and Tommy, to stand. They are here this morning.

Would you do that?

Senator MORSE. We are delighted to have them with us.

Senator RANDOLPH. In children like them, frankly, we hold the future of America. We know they have good home training and the way they are trained in school is equally important.

Senator MORSE. Thank you, Senator. You may proceed, Miss Root. Miss Root. An omnibus bill may face multiple difficulties in passage, but it does make us conscious of the many facets of educational issues.

On title II, Expansion and Improvement of Higher Education, we don't know where we are right now. The Pennsylvania legislature is struggling with a community college bill. You have seen, Senator Clark, I imagine, what the pitfalls are, causing uncertainty as to the passage of a plan this year.

The areas of the Commonwealth with high unemployment and reduced income would profit particularly from aid for college-level technical education which should increase employment among younger people. Secretary Wirtz only last Thursday called attention to the lack of job opportunities for youth-"one of the most explosive problems in the Nation's history."

Don't you think, Senator Clark, that college-level technical education would be of great help in those southwest counties? Actually, they have some academic colleges down there, also State colleges.


Their greatest need is on that level. The superintendents of Fayette County told me that if they can get something through to post-highschool level, what they want is an area technical school on the posthigh-school level.

Senator CLARK. I certainly agree with you, Miss Root, that the situation in Pennsylvania with respect to junior colleges is disgraceful. We just do not have any junior college program in our State. It is long overdue.

It is shocking when you think of the job opportunities of California, tied in with the fact that they have the best junior college setup in the country, and probably the best State educational system in the country, that we in Pennsylvania have done so little to catch up in that


I strongly favor the provisions in the omnibus bill for expanded aid to junior colleges.

On the other hand, and I am happy to have this chance to say this in the presence of my friend from Oregon and my friend from West Virginia, there is not much use in establishing a college in southwest Pennsylvania in Fayette County when every graduate of high school in Uniontown this year and last year had to leave the county because they could not get a job. Not one stayed. I don't think they are going to stay because there is a junior college there, just on that account.

I made this point, Senator Morse, in hearings on unemployment and manpower the other day, which I think the testimony of these two witnesses emphasized:

Two-thirds of the present unemployment in the United States of America today is of individuals, men and women both, who have not completed the ninth grade of school. Until we can remedy that situation, in my opinion it cannot be done without massive assistance from the Federal Government, we are going to be plagued with this in the future.

Senator MORSE. I must not testify here this morning, but you are very entertaining because you always open up so many vistas of ideas. Senator CLARK. I think the coordination between your subcommittee and the one I am presiding over is terribly important.


Senator MORSE. I think so. I think the Senator must call the attention of the people who are asleep, that our economy is not expanding. We do not expand our civilian economy properly when we are in the midst of a defense economy. When we have almost 75 percent of research and development scientists and skilled technicians working in fields of the military missiles, space, and atomic energy for defense purposes as well as in the governmental programs, we have a stagnating private economy.

It is going to continue. We will continue to have more and more unemployment in our economy. We are lagging behind England, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Norway because we have been buttressing their economies with our dollars. The greatest, may I say to you people from Pennsylvania, the greatest steel mills in the world are no longer in the United States.

Miss Root. We know it.

Senator MORSE. The greatest chemical plants are no longer in the United States. Some of our allies are asking for more but are unwilling to pay their cost of supporting freedom.

That is why the senior Senator from Oregon is now being chastised in the press of America by a group of uninformed educators who are calling me neo-isolationist. I am tempted to generalize that, as a class, educators are the most uninformed group of educated people in America. Perhaps they spend most of their time reading their own writing.

Well, I should take them on and the administration, too, in connection with this matter of our economy. You people are giving us the evidence this morning, if it is summed up, as to what the foreign aid program of the United States, which has taken us into, not a free

economy, but a defense economy, is doing to a free economy in this country.

It is going to continue to give us more and more unemployment.

I think it is not paradoxical that you wonderful teachers can see this. I can understand why you should, even though from the standpoint of Pennsylvania you may feel the need for more defense plants. What we need is more plants, all right; but not defense plants. What we need is not more Federal installations in the depressed areas, and the unemployment areas of America, but what we need is more private, civilian productive plants. Plants which are going to employ men to expand our economy are needed. In that way we will stop being at the bottom of the list among the powerful free nations of the world in economic production today.

The American people apparently do not know that we are last in economic productivity today in the world on the list of powerful free nations.

The reason for this is because we are building up everyone else's economy-that is, their civilian economy-while ours is on a "toboggan ride."

It has been most difficult for me to serve notice last Wednesday on the Secretary of State as I did, in the Foreign Relations Committee, after I listened to him for over 2 hours.

I said, "Mr. Secretary, you have lost me. I am not on your team any more. I do not intend to vote you a single dollar for NATO until you come back with some commitments from the NATO countries. You came from Ottawa without a single commitment from France."


We have to do something about buttressing the private economy of this country instead of building up the private economy of every other country.

I did not mean to make that little speech, may I say to the Senator. 1 have to go to the White House and explain some of my views down there. I hate to run off on you good people.

But you cannot separate these economic factors. You cannot keep this Federal-aid-to-education bill in a vacuum.

It is all linked to the points I made here this morning.

Miss Roor. Senator Morse, I did not want to give the impression that at that 3-day conference on economic growth of Pennsylvania all the emphasis was put on defense industries. There was just one speaker who discussed that and most of the discussion was on other matters, such as water supply, transportation, and education and their relation to industry.

Senator MORSE. I understand that.

I want to thank you very much, Senator, for taking over. Please accept my apologies. I have to go to the White House.

Senator RANDOLPH (presiding pro tempore). Thank you, Senator Morse. Please continue, Miss Root?

Miss Roor. Title III: Improvement of Educational Quality. Both the greater emphasis on subject matter and the explosion of knowledge make it imperative for teachers to continue to study. One of the barriers, however, is the cost of tuition and a second is inaccessi

bility of graduate institutions. The provisions for advanced study for teachers in part A would be most helpful.

One interesting example of inaccessibility is that Pennsylvania has had to extend the time for permanent certificates for teachers in some of the counties which are far from universities. These teachers cannot take courses on Saturday or in the evening, but must go to summer school.

Under part B we are particularly interested in improvement of student teaching activities and improvement of standards for selection of candidates for teaching.

Part C carries a provision for training—

to teach adults who have difficulty reading or writing English or have less than an eighth grade education.

In the Ford Foundation experiments in the great cities much stress has been laid on work with parents to arouse greater interest on their part in the educational achievements of their children. What an opportunity to stimulate many of these same parents to escape from the handicaps of functional illiteracy.

We would like to see more effort put into reading and correction of illiteracy, if possible.


In view of the widespread prediction that Federal aid for teachers' salaries and for school construction will fall again, it may seem foolish to ask questions about the three methods of allotting funds for salary increases. Pennsylvania is one of the States that has had for many years a mandated salary schedule of minimum salary, annual increments, and maximum salary. Of course, districts may pay more and many do, especially since the present schedule was enacted in 1956. The administration introduced a new salary schedule only last week. But Pennsylvania's pattern does mean that there may be less variation in entrance salaries than in some other States. Also, that average salaries are affected considerably by age and experience of faculties as well as by community resources and commitment to education

Senator RANDOLPH. Miss Root, may I interrupt to say that I am not quite clear when you say the administration introduced a new salary schedule only last week. Do you mean that your legislature is now in session?

Miss Roor. Our legislature is still in session. The new salary schedule for teachers in Pennsylvania was introduced in the legislature last Tuesday or Wednesday.

Senator RANDOLPH. Was that at the insistence of the Governor? Miss Root. It is an administration bill, but it really grew out of the Governor's Committee of One Hundred that was appointed by Governor Lawrence and succeeded the Governor's Committee of Thirty on which both Senators Clark and Scott served.


Senator RANDOLPH. I am delighted to state that in our State of West Virginia we raised our salaries this year.

Miss Root. You passed a new one? What is yours?

Senator RANDOLPH. Our West Virginia Legislature has enacted legislation to provide an increase for all teachers in our public schools which includes our high schools. It amounts to an increase of $10 per month for teachers without an academic degree, $20 for those with a bachelor of arts degree and $30 for teachers who have a master's degree. I am in favor of this raise for our teachers.


Miss Root. You probably know how many Pennsylvanians go to West Virginia University to study. In some school districts in the southwest corner a significant percentage of teachers commute from West Virginia every day.

Senator RANDOLPH. That is true. They commute from western Pennsylvania into Morgantown.

Miss Roor. And from Morgantown to Pennsylvania.

Miss Pincus, recent past president of the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers, will stress the special education needs of educationally deprived children in slums or similarly depressed urban or rural areas having a particularly high incidence of school dropouts and having serious problems of youth delinquency and unemployment. Philadelphia's problems are greatest in magnitude and complexity, but other school districts are also appalled by theirs.

I know that Miss Pincus is going to give a good plea for Philadelphia, but as somebody who visits other parts of the State, I think there are other districts with the same problem. In some cases they are not even aware of it and are not doing one single thing about it. Pittsburgh has a Ford Foundation grant for a pilot program, but smaller cities do not have even that stimulus. This program is one of the most urgent in the whole bill.

The National Defense Education Act programs in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages has been of startling benefit to improvement of instruction in Pennsylvania, particularly because ours was one of the first States to plan for and use the National Defense Education Act. Continuation of this program is vital.

We wish it could be extended to other fields that are, perhaps less obviously, essential to national defense and perhaps would be involved in more controversies. Under some title we should like particularly to see provision for improvement of reading.

I know that you took that up in Governor Lawrence's first committee. Also, too many people are ignoring vocational training in their discussion of needed educational improvements.

This blindness was particularly noticeable in the hearings on school district reorganization when all the emphasis of speaker after speaker was put on college preparatory facilities.

Senator CLARK (presiding pro tempore). I think you are absolutely right, Miss Root.

In the hearings which Senator Randolph and I are holding concurrently on unemployment and manpower, the need for massive Federal aid to employment facilities has been expressed by witness after witness. This is tied in with the omnibus bill.

Miss RooT. I attended 2 days of the 4-day hearings on the reorganization bill and the general claim was that if there is a fairly good col

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