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EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS FOR IMPROVEMENT, TO COMPLY WITH REQUIREMENTS OF THE RIVER AND HARBOR ACT OF AUGUST 11,
The required preliminary examinations of the following localities were made by the local engineer in charge, William F. Smith, United States agent, major of Engineers, U. S. Army, retired, and reported by him as not worthy of improvement, with facts and reasons for such opinion. The Chief of Engineers, concurring in the conclusions reached in these instances, has given no instructions to make further survey with the view to their improvement.
1. Prime Hook Creek, Delaware.--(See Appendix H 17.) 2. Still Pond Harbor, Maryland.-(See Appendix II 18.)
Preliminary examinations of the following localities were made by the local engineer,. William F. Smith, United States agent, major of Engineers, U. S. Army, retired, and reported by him as worthy of improve
1. Mahon River, Delaware.—(See Appendix II 19.)
6. Nanticoke River, from Seaford to Concord, Delaware.-(See Appendix II 24.)
7. Warwick River, Maryland.-(See Appendix II 25.) 8. La Trappe River, Maryland.-(See Appendix H 26.) 9. Tuckahoe River, Maryland.--(See Appendix II 27.) 10. Sassafras River, Maryland.--(See Appendix A 28.)
The division engineer, Col. William P. Craighill, did not concur in the opinion of Major Smith. I am not satisfied that these localities are worthy of improvement, and for this reason surveys have not been ordered.
It appearing from the report of the preliminary examination made. by the local engineer that the following localities are worthy of improvement, and the public necessity therefor being apparent from the facts and reasons reported, which are concurred in by the Chief of Engineers, W. F. Smith, United States agent, major of Engineers, U. S. Army, retired, was charged with their survey, the results of which will be submitted when received:
1. Appoquinimink Creek, Delaware.
2. Wicomico River, Maryland.
3. Chester River, between Crumpton and Jones' Landing, Maryland. 4. Onancock Harbor, Virginia.
5. Chincoteague Inlet, Virginia, for purposes of a breakwater.
6. North East River, Maryland.
7. Elk River, Maryland.
8. Harbor of Cape Charles City and approaches by Cheuton Inlet, Virginia. 9. Manokin River, Maryland.
IMPROVEMENT OF PATAPSCO RIVER AND CHANNEL TO BALTIMORE, MD., AND OF JAMES RIVER, VIRGINIA.
Officer in charge, Col. William P. Craighill, Cerps of Engineers, until March 30, 1889, and after that date Capt. Thomas Turtle, Corps of Engineers. Lient. G. J. Fiebeger, Corps of Engineers, was under the
immediate orders of the officer in charge from August 30 to November 22, 1888, and Lieut. W. E. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, temporarily under the immediate orders of the officer in charge from January 12 to March 29, 1889.
1. Channel to Baltimore, Maryland.-The depth of this channel has been by successive steps increased from 17 feet at mean low water to 27 feet, with an average rise of tide of about 18 inches.
The project of improvement first adopted and commenced in October, 1853, had for its object to give a channel 22 feet at mean low water with a width of 150 feet.
Little was done before the late war, but afterwards these dimensions were increased, a depth of 24 feet at mean low water being determined upon with a width of channel ranging from 250 to 400 feet.
This channel was completed in 1874, important changes of position having been given to a portion of it, by which the distance was materially lessened and the expense of maintenance decreased.
The object of the improvement was to permit the approach to Baltimore, at mean low water, of vessels drawing from 224 to 23 feet and at ordinary high water of vessels drawing 24 and 244 feet.
At the close of the last fiscal year operations were suspended from lack of funds. The act of August 11, 1888, appropriated $300,000, and this amount is now nearly expended, or obligation under contract entered into, and all work contemplated under that appropriation will be completed, probably, by September 1, 1889.
The channel throughout has been excavated to 27 feet at low water. The Craighill Channel below the Cut-off, the Cut-off Channel and the Brewertou above the Cut-off have been excavated to 400 feet width; the Fort McHenry Channel has a least width of 250 feet and there are considerably greater widths at the angles.
Up to June 30, 1889, the United States had expended $2,359,433.27 with the result indicated above. The city of Baltimore and the State of Maryland, chiefly the former, have also contributed to the same object more than $500,000.
July 1, 1888, amount available....
Amount appropriated by act of August 11, 1888
July 1, 1889, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of
liabilities outstanding July 1, 1888..
July 1, 1889, outstanding liabilities..
July 1, 1889, amount covered by existing contracts..
304, 025. 49
18,500.00 107, 290.93
July 1, 1889, balance available
(Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1891 500,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
(See Appendix I 1.)
2. James River, Virginia.-When the improvement of the James River was regularly undertaken by the Government the navigation was obstructed by sunken vessels, by remains of military bridges, and by other obstructions put into the river during the late war to prevent the national fleets from approaching too close to Richmond.
There were also other natural obstructions. Rockett's Reef and Richmond Bar had only 7 feet of water at mean low tide. From Warwick Bar to Richmond the channel was crooked and obstructed by
dangerous rocks and ledges, the Dutch Gap Cut-off was not then open, and the river was in a poor condition as regards its availability for commercial purposes.
The original project of improvement was to secure a depth of 18 feet at full tide (corresponding to about 15 feet at low tide) to Richmond, with a channel width of 180 feet. This project had reached an advanced stage of progress when Congress, by act approved July 5, 1884, adopted the project looking to 22 feet at mean low tide from the sea to Richmond, the width to be 400 feet from the sea to City Point, 300 from thence to Drewry's Bluff, and 200 feet from thence to Richmond.
July 1, 1888, the available balance was $1,047.98. The additional sum of $225,000 was provided by the law of August 11, 1888.
At the commencement of the fiscal year all field operations had ceased on account of funds having been exhausted. As soon as money was available a survey was organized to ascertain what was most necessary and pressing to do.
The brush in places in the training dikes had settled considerably and repairs to such places were made as soon as practicable. Work was continued on the dredging at Stearn's Dike by the dredges rented from the city of Richmond after advertisements had failed to secure satisfactory bids, and upon this work there were removed during the year 7,073.4 cubic yards of sand or gravel, 21,978.6 cubic yards of disintegrated rock, and 4,806.3 cubic yards of solid rock, making a total of 33,858.3 cubic yards of material, together with 205 bowlders.
Operations were resumed in dredging over the reach from Richmond Bar, and by contract to Falling Creek, and 475,020 cubic yards of sand, mud, and gravel, 197 bowlders, and 20 logs were removed from this section.
Another contract was let, under which three old wing-dams were extended a total of 232.3 feet, seven new ones built, aggregating 999.7 feet in length, and the ends of certain others connected by 9,140.6 feet of training-dikes. The work at Goode's Rocks was again taken up, and, under contract, 421 holes, aggregating 3,061 feet in length, were drilled and blasted; 2,059.6 cubic yards of solid rock and 1,918.7 cubic yards of disintegrated rock were removed to June 30; this contract being about 66 per cent. completed.
Four deck-lighters and a combined hoister and pile driver were built under contract.
A land-slide at Dutch Gap demanded that some of the material therefrom should be removed to avoid further movement into the already restricted channel, and informal arrangements were made with the owner of a dredge then in the vicinity to undertake the work, and under this arrangement it is expected to remove about 40,000 cubic yards of material at 16 cents per cubic yard, of which 18,776.3 cubic yards had been removed up to July 1.
A freshet occurred on June 2, only exceeded in height by two freshets in forty-two years, and it is gratifying to note that no damage was done to the works.
The condition of the river at the close of the year may be stated as follows:
The available draught from the sea to City Point at high tide was 19 feet; thence to Kingsland, 18 feet; over Kingsland, 16 feet; thence to Richmond, 163 feet.
When the proposed improvement is completed an annual expenditure of $20,000 will be necessary for the maintenance of the channel. The amount that may be advantageously expended during the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1889, is put at $400,000, less than one-tenth the estimated cost of the adopted project.
The total amount expended on this river by the United States up to June 30, 1888, has been $939,215.23, which includes the sum of $208,330.68 expended since the new project has been entered upon to give a depth of 22 feet at mean low water. Amount expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, $155,324.63.
July 1, 1888, amount available.....
Amount appropriated by act of August 11, 1888..
July 1, 1889, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of liabilities outstanding July 1, 1888.....
July 1, 1889, outstanding liabilities...
July 1, 1889, amount covered by existing contracts..
July 1, 1889, balance available.....
23, 603. 61
184, 353. 24
(Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1891
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
(See Appendix I 2.)
.3, 936, 070. 45
3. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation. The schooner Wallace M. French, sunk opposite Leading Point, near Fort McHenry division of channel leading to Baltimore Harbor, was removed by contract, completed May 31, 1889.
(See Appendix I 3.)
IMPROVEMENT OF THE HARBOR AT NORFOLK AND ITS APPROACHES, VIRGINIA; APPROACH TO NORFOLK, VIRGINIA; OF NANSEMOND RIVER, VIRGINIA, INCLUDING MOUTHS OF BENNETT AND CHUCKATUCK CREEKS AND APPOMATTOX RIVER, VIRGINIA; CURRITUCK SOUND, COANJOK BAY, AND NORTH RIVER BAR, NORTH CAROLINA. Officers in charge: Col. Wm. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, to November 22, 1888, since which time Lieut. G. J. Fiebeger, Corps of Engineers. Division Engineer, Col. Wm. P. Craighill, Corps of Engi
1. Harbor of Norfolk and its approaches, Virginia.—The project for improvement adopted in 1877 was to deepen and widen the channel at the mouth of the Southern Branch and along the Berkley and Portsmouth Flats, in the harbor proper, and for the approaches to dredge a channel 500 feet wide and 25 feet deep, at ordinary low water, through the bars at the Western Branch and Sewell's Point.
The revised project of 1885 is as follows: (1) To secure a channel not less than 25 feet deep and 500 feet wide at ordinary low water, by dredging from the deep water of Hampton Roads to Norfolk and the United States Navy-yard on the Southern Branch, and also to secure a channel in the Eastern Branch at the same stage, not less than 22 feet deep, with a width at least 300 feet at the Norfolk and Western Railroad Bridge, and gradually increasing to about 700 feet at its mouth, by dredging between said points; and (2) to ultimately dredge the entire area bounded by lines parallel to and 75 feet from the port-warden lines to a depth not less than 25 feet at ordinary low water, from Fort Norfolk to the United States Navy-yard, and not less than 22 feet
from the mouth of the Eastern Branch to Campostella Bridge, and to construct a bulkhead at Berkley Flats.
With slight modification all operations have been conducted in accordance therewith.
The amount expended to June 30, 1888, was $433,225, which resulted in a channel at least 200 feet wide and 25 feet deep from Hampton Roads to Norfolk Harbor; a channel of the same depth and 125 to 500 feet wide in the Southern Branch to the United States Navy-yard, and a channel 22 feet deep and 200 feet wide in the Eastern Branch to the Norfolk and Western Railroad Bridge.
The channel thus dredged was in a good condition July 1, 1888, except at Sewell's Point Bar where the ruling depth was reduced to 223 feet, and at the mouth of the Eastern Branch where it was 20 feet.
There was expended in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, $49,344.91, which was applied to the removal of 360,957 cubic yards of material from Sewell's Point Bar. This dredging resulted in a channel nearly 250 feet wide and 13,500 feet long through the bar.
The establishment of the harbor lines has increased the ultimate amount of dredging called for in the project of 1885.
To complete this work as far as can be foreseen will require the expenditure of $507,744.56.
July 1, 1888, amount available...
Amount appropriated by act of August 11, 1888..
July 1, 1889, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of liabilities outstanding July 1, 1888..
July 1, 1889, balance available....
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1891 100,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
(See Appendix J 1.)
2. Approach to Norfolk Harbor and the United States (Norfolk) Navyyard, between Lambert's Point and Fort Norfolk.-The original condition of this channel was good with the exception of the shoal opposite the mouth of Western Branch, over which there was a navigable depth of 19 feet at ordinary low water.
The project of 1878 was to dredge a channel 500 feet wide and 25 feet deep at ordinary low water the entire length of the shoal, 4,800 feet.
The revised project of 1886 is: (1) To secure a channel, not less than 25 feet deep and 500 feet wide at ordinary low water from Lambert's Point to Fort Norfolk, by the construction of a dike and by dredging. (2) To ultimately widen this channel to within 75 feet of a straight line drawn from Fort Norfolk to the deep water opposite Lambert's Point, 6,800 feet of which is the proposed port-warden's line, making the channel at least 709 feet wide.
From July 5, 1884, to June 30, 1888, there was expended on this improvement $80,223, which resulted in a channel 400 feet wide and 25 feet deep at ordinary low water, and a channel of the same depth aud 600 feet wide from the deep water off Lambert's Point to the port-warden line.
During the year ending June 30, 1889, there was expended on this improvement, including outstanding liabilities and amount covered by