The World Summit on Sustainable Development: The Johannesburg Conference

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L. Hens, Bhaskar Nath
Springer Science & Business Media, 2005 M11 17 - 422 pages
The Johannesburg Earth Summit, which took place in the summer of 2002, confirmed the irreversible nature of the process that is founded upon the concept of Sustainable Development initially given form at Rio de Janeiro ten years earlier. This process is to be welcomed, while at the same time recognising the tremendous work that has taken place in converting this concept into a more concrete vision. The Sustainable Development concept relates to every human activity, covering the social, economic and ecological dimensions, which are often in conflict. Consequently, it is most important to include in research programmes some thought of the way people behave. In theory, the general elements of this inclusion are relatively easily defined. However, assessing the effects of one or another decision on all the interactions between the social, economic and ecological dimensions involves significant difficulties. All the more since we have to recognise, in all modesty, that humanity has not always excelled in the art of forward studies. In fact, the Precautionary Principle was introduced partly as a reaction to the sometimes blind confidence in technology and logic (even if it is sometimes invoked in an exaggerated manner). Nevertheless, the duty to act for the sake of present and future generations is pressing. Throughout history mankind has had to adapt and to innovate. Now, at st the beginning of the 21 century the urgent need for such adaptations is obvious.

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Contents

THE JOHANNESBURG CONFERENCE
1
1 Introduction
2
2 The context and the antecedents
5
22 Implementation of the Rio agreements
6
23 The Millennium Declaration
8
25 The Monterrey Consensus
11
26 The Summit Preparatory Committees PrepComs
12
3 World Summit on Sustainable Development
14
33 Water
217
4 General problems
218
5 Regional Environmental Centre
219
6 The EU and the CEE countries
220
7 Conclusions
221
WSSD 2002 LATIN AMERICA AND BRAZIL BIODIVERSITY AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
223
1 Introduction
224
2 The diversity of life forms
226

32 The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development
15
33 Plan of Implementation of the WSSD
16
34 Type II partnerships for Sustainable Development
26
4 Discussion
28
42 Evaluation of WSSD outcomes
31
5 Conclusion
32
References
33
POVERTY REDUCTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
35
2 From Rio to Johannesburg
36
22 Strategies for poverty alleviation
37
23 Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
39
3 Poverty sustainability and growth
43
31 Growth and the Environment
44
32 Naturalising development thinking
47
4 The way forward
50
41 Clarifying the conceptual framework
51
43 Aiming at policy coherence
52
References
53
CHAPTER 3 PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION AND THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
57
2 Production and consumption at Rio
58
22 Common but differentiated responsibilities
60
24 Reviewing progress
61
More actionoriented?
63
33 Consumer guidelines on sustainable consumption
66
The implementation gap
67
4 Production consumption and the WSSD Plan of Implementation
76
42 Towards a tenyear programme of work
77
43 Corporate responsibility and accountability
79
44 Cleaner production and ecoefficiency
80
45 Other proposed actions
81
46 Role of trade and investment
83
5 Conclusions
84
References
86
WATER FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
91
2 The African water vision
92
3 The African water task force
94
5 The African crisis
96
7 Salient features of water resources in Africa
98
72 Extreme spatial and temporal variability of climate and rainfall
100
74 Inadequate institutional and financing arrangements
101
75 Inadequate data and human capacity
102
78 Water pollution and environmental degradation
103
9 What did the WSSD achieve?
104
91 Access and availability
106
92 Allocation issues
107
94 Social issues
108
11 Conclusion
110
References
111
ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AT GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL SUMMITS AN EVOLVING AGENDA
113
conceptual connections
114
21 Energy and environmental stress
115
22 Energy and economic growth
116
23 Energy and basic human needs
118
3 Global policy on energy and sustainable development
120
31 Stockholm 1972
121
32 Rio de Janeiro 1992
123
33 Johannesburg 2002
126
34 An evolving agenda
129
4 Conclusions
131
MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
135
1 Introduction
136
Agenda 21 and postRio actions
137
3 Rotterdam Convention
140
4 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
141
5 Bahia declaration and priorities for action beyond 2000
143
6 Globally Harmonised System GHS for the classification and labelling of chemicals
145
8 Conclusions
147
References
148
HEALTH A NECESSITY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
151
2 Health
152
3 Disease and Ill Health
154
4 Disease and population changes
159
5 Changing behaviour
163
6 Vulnerable groups
165
7 Economics
168
8 Education
171
9 Beliefs and values
173
10 Westernisation
174
11 Traffic air quality and chemicals
176
12 Conclusions
179
References
180
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES THE CASE OF THE MALDIVES
183
1 Introduction
184
2 Vulnerability and small islands
186
21 Demography
187
3 Maldives a typical small island developing state
189
31 Demography
191
32 Socioeconomic status
192
33 Freshwater
193
34 Energy
194
35 Pollution
195
36 Biodiversity
196
37 Climate change and sealevel rise
197
38 Implications of climate change to sustainable development
200
4 Progress in implementation and future prospects
203
5 Conclusion
206
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT A NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE
211
2 Conferences of the European Ministers for environment
213
23 The Third Ministerial Conference Sofia 1995
214
3 The state of the environment in the region
215
32 Soil
216
environmental demographic and socioeconomic diversity
230
4 The Amazonian dilemma
231
5 Indigenous peoples and sustainability
233
6 Conclusions
235
Acknowledgements
236
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF THE FINANCIAL WORLD
241
1 Johannesburg and its means of implementation
242
2 Official development assistance and the development banks
243
3 Open and equitable multilateral trading and financial systems
244
31 Problems regarding short term financial security
245
4 Foreign direct investments
246
42 FDI versus ODA
247
5 Microfinance
248
7 Sustainable bankers and insurers pushing the codes
249
8 A survey on the stateoftheart sustainability and banking
252
81 The London Principles
253
82 WBSCD Joint Statement at Johannesburg Summit
254
9 Environmental care CSR and accountability
255
92 The frameworks of EMAS ISO VFU EPI and ABI
258
101 Success in the market
259
102 Performance
260
103 Mainstreaming and convergence
261
104 Engagement
262
105 The carbon disclosure project
264
global objectives local divergences
265
12 The impetus of the European definition on CSR
267
121 Triple bottom line approach
268
124 Having a dialogue with stakeholders
269
132 No harmonisation of the evaluation and rating process
270
References
271
EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THE JOHANNESBURG SUMMIT AND BEYOND
275
2 Means of implementation of the JPI and some parallel initiatives
276
22 The Ubuntu Declaration
277
23 Some other initiatives on education for sustainable development
278
can science and technology deliver sustainable development?
280
32 Causeeffect relationship
282
33 Can science and technology deliver sustainable development?
283
4 Evolution of human attitude to the environment
285
42 In Western civilisations
286
5 Heuristic for a solution
289
52 Methodology
291
6 Conclusion
295
References
297
SCIENCE RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE AND CAPACITY BUILDING
299
what does a fair world mean in respect to finite environmental resources?
300
2 Which grand challenges do earths societies face?
301
3 Was the WSSD in Johannesburg a science summit?
303
4 What is on the science agenda before and after Johannesburg?
305
5 How many dimensions does capacity building have?
307
6 What about best practice examples in capacity building?
308
7 How to communicate the scientific value of sustainability?
310
scientists with hearts and new ideas all over the world
311
what does the new contract between science and the public look like?
313
References
316
GOVERNANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION
319
2 The concept of governance
320
3 Good governance
322
4 The role of civil society
324
5 Participation
325
51 Types of participation
327
6 Link between governance and participation
328
7 Governance and democratisation
329
9 Treatment of governance at the World Summit
330
92 A chapter on governance or on institutional framework?
331
93 The vital role of partnerships
333
94 Principles of good governance
334
10 Treatment of participation at the World Summit
335
11 Post WSSD
339
Need for a World Environment Organisation?
340
112 The role of Civil Society in the future sustainability debate
341
12 Conclusion
342
References
343
PARTNERSHIPS
347
2 Partnerships
348
21 Partnerships for sustainable development
349
23 Process of forming a partnership for sustainable development
353
24 Key features of successful multistakeholder partnerships
355
25 The case for partnerships for sustainable development
356
3 Sustainable development partnerships at WSSD
357
32 Criteriaguiding principles debate
358
33 WSSD OUTCOMES
359
35 Regional implementation meetings
360
4 Analysis
361
43 Has the case for partnerships been established?
363
45 Political assessment
366
53 Promotion of partnerships for sustainable development pfsd
368
54 Political
369
6 Conclusions
370
References
371
IS MULTILATERALISM THE FUTURE? SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OR GLOBALISATION AS A COMPREHENSIVE VISION OF THE F...
373
1 Introduction
374
a neverending story
376
the new face of multilateralism?
379
42 The Johannesburg Declaration
384
actionoriented decisions and timebound measures?
387
too little multilateralism to bridge the gap between economic globalization and sustainable development
391
References
393
List of Abbreviations
395
Index
403
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