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So, I would like further comment from any panel member if we can get that.
Mr. GARDINER. Well, let me see if I can start, Congresswoman Johnson.
I think the as I tried to indicate in my opening statement that the sense that we have from the programs that we run at EPA that are largely about deploying new technologies is that they are extremely effective at both our reducing emissions, not only of greenhouse gases but of other air pollutants as well, which clearly is very important in a number of areas around the country. But, also, that they have substantial economic benefits because they are largely about making these institutions
whether they are hospitals or universities or businesses more energy efficient and saving them money in the short run.
So, we believe that there are substantial benefits, both environmentally as well as economically, that result from the kinds of programs that we are already running today, and which the President's initiative asks be expanded, both especially at the Department of Energy and at the Environmental Protection Agency.
Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas. Yes?
Mr. REICHER. Just a few quick examples. In individuals' homes, by improving the efficiency of appliances like the refrigerators and dishwashers, and you actually can radically cut energy use and, thereby, cut pollution in a community-and a very direct linkage and huge opportunities in that area. In cars, obviously, the extent to which we can improve the mileage of cars, we are obviously cutting pollution at the same time. And in industry-the steel industry, the aluminum industry, pulp and paper, a whole host of industries as we go into those facilities and work within those industries to cut their energy use, what comes out the stack at those plants and what comes out in the stack at the local power plant can be dramatically reduced.
So, if-in our efforts to address carbon dioxide emissions from a global warming perspective, we are very clearly cutting the more localized and regional air pollutants that affect people's health every day. Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas. Well, thank you.
AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH I was hoping someone would comment on some of the research that is going on now, in terms of the electric car or some of the technologies that are, hopefully, getting near being marketed.
Mr. REICHER. There is very exciting research, Congresswoman, and actually very exciting products coming to the market, in the automobile industry. Where we are headed is essentially two areas, in terms of the next generation of automobiles.
One are hybrid automobiles that link electric motors and either gas or diesel engines in a very efficient combination where we can foresee mileage on the order of—in fact, our goal of 80 miles per gallon in a car that seats five or six people and is as affordable as an average automobile.
We are also looking at fuel cell-powered vehicles. You may have seen a few weeks ago Daimler-Chrysler announced a prototype fuel cell vehicle that they are working to put on the road, in partnership with our Government-sponsored programs, some time early in the next decade.
A whole host of car companies are focused on both of these approaches. There is a very robust partnership between Government and industry to get them on the road.
I would only add that there is also a very intense race across the globe for market share—the Japanese, the Germans, U.S. manufacturers-realizing that these high-mileage, low-polluting cars are the future. And we want to make sure that U.S. workers, U.S. companies,
have the lion's share of that new market as it emerges. Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas. Thank you very much. Chairman CALVERT. Thank you. Mr. Costello.
TAX INCENTIVES FOR COAL
Mr. COSTELLO. One last question; Dr. Lane, you mentioned in your testimony about moving us away from fossil fuels as one approach to our energy policy in the 21st century. You also point out about our dependency on imported oil from overseas.
Wouldn't it be-wouldn't it make sense for us, as a Government, to encourage the partnership that we talked about earlier and to provide tax incentives in order to have utilities use the abundance of coal that we have in the United States today?
Dr. LANE. Well, Mr. Costello, I think that there is a place for R&D; there is a place for tax incentives. The Climate Change Technology Initiative is a broad initiative; it has all aspects of this. We talked earlier about the situation with coal. The report that I referred to earlier put out by PCAST on energy R&D makes this point very clearly; that we are going to need coal, but we are going to need new technologies, not the ones we currently know about. And so there is a place where we are really going to have to invest in high-risk technologies. The cost of that R&D is high enough so it is just not natural for industry to do that on its own, and that is where partnerships play a very important role
Mr. COSTELLO. We are short-
Mr. COSTELLO. We are short of time, but I would just encourage you to ask the Administration to aggressively pursue a large role for the tax incentives and the partnership with the private sector and public utilities to use coal. Dr. LANE. Thank you,
sir. Chairman CALVERT. Thank the gentlemen, and I thank our witnesses today.
We are adjourned.
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