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spacecraft and the U.S. will develop the deployment mechanisms and will be responsible for the program management and integration with the orbiter.
The Space Transportation Operations Program provides the standard operational support services for both of the primary U.S. government space launch systems—the Space Shuttle and the expendable launch vehicles. The budget for fiscal year 1984 will provide for production of Shuttle flight hardware (external tanks, solid rocket boosters, engine spares and orbiter spares); maintenance and operation of mission control and crew training systems; and the manpower necessary to support the launches planned for fiscal year 1984. Ten sets of SRB hardware and 11 external tanks are scheduled for delivery in fiscal year 1984.
In November, we awarded a base operations contract for NASA's Kennedy Space Center, to EG&G, Inc., aimed at strengthening support of our launch functions. Under this contract, there will be a clear assignment of responsibility and accountability and a reduction of management interfaces from fourteen to one. In late 1983, we expect to award a Shuttle processing contract which will further reduce the program management complexity and operational costs. The initial start up costs and projected manpower savings are reflected in the fiscal year 1984 estimates. Later, we hope to issue a cargo processing contract to complete the consolidation of our efforts.
We have also taken steps to reduce production costs and increase launch capability. A significant milestone was reached last September when we took delivery of the first lightweight external tank five days ahead of a schedule set in 1980. Our goal was to reduce 6,000 pounds from the previous tank configuration and we actually achieved a 10,000 pound reduction. An additional improvement in payload capability of approximately 5,500 pounds is expected from the new filament wound case, for the solid rocket booster, which is planned for first use in late 1985. Programs are also underway to reduce recurring external tank and solid rocket booster production costs, include modification to the aft skirt structure, modifications in applying and removing tank TPS and development, of low cost solid rocket motor nozzle material. In the Expendable Launch Vehicles program, the fiscal year 1984 funding reflects the requirements to support the Delta launch vehicle's missions. We have recently determined that the number of vehicles to be procured for non-NASA missions should be reduced commensurate with the revised reimbursable launch requirements. The Delta system is planned to be operational at least until 1986 to support the launch requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
SPACE STATION PLANNING ACTIVITIES
Last May, I established a Space Station Task Force to provide focus and direction to the Agency's planning activities for this potential major new initiative. The planning effort will be continued and expanded modestly in fiscal year 1984 in order to generate the information, including costs and benefits, necessary for the Administration and Congress to make an informed decision on whether to proceed with some form of more permanent space facilities.
NASA's fiscal year 1983 planning activity is focused upon understanding exactly what a space station could do, emphasizing the several areas of endeavor that utilize space: science, applications, technology development, National security, and commerce. We have deliberately steered away from design and configuration, directing our attention, and that of other interested parties, than to mission reqirements and "architecture." Our goal is to have a thorough understanding of space station functions and the consequent attributes a station would require to carry out specific missions. Last summer, we sponsored eight small industry studies of potential space station missions. These are on schedule and will be completed shortly. Their results will be synthesized into potential time-phased mission sets which could be accomplished by a station in space. In addition, we have held discussions with our scientific and technical advisory committees, potential international partners and the Department of Defense to encourage them to review space station missions.
NASA's fiscal year 1984 request includes $6 million within Space Transportation Advanced Programs which will be used primarily for space station systems engineering activities. An additional $6 million is included to augment on-going efforts in the fiscal year 1984 Space Research and Technology program, principally to focus on key technology activities. In addition, $2 million is requested in the Space Science and Applications program primarily for studies of science and applications payloads applicable to a space station. Fiscal year 1984 planning calls for identification of an "architecture" which could accommodate a preferred mission set, and further refinement of conceptual approaches.
SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS
The past year's highlights for the Space Science and Applications program, in addition to the Landsat 4 launch, include the recent launch of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), and the outstanding early success of the Search and Rescue Satellite project.
Landsat 4 was launched in July, to provide more sophisticated and reliable data on earth resources. Landsat 4 carries a flight-proven Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments for remote sensing. Data from these instruments have surpassed all expectations. The improved ground resolution and extended spectral range provided by the Thematic Mapper will enable users to recognize subtle differences in forest species, agricultural conditions, soil moisture and water turbidity that could not be detected in earlier MSS imaging. Approximately 4,000 TM scenes of the continental United States have already been acquired and archived during the first six months of Landsat 4 operations, and several research programs are now underway to evaluate in detail the quality and scientific utility to the Landsat 4 imagery. Unfortunately, on February 15, 1983, an anomaly occurred disrupting direct readout of thematic mapper data directly to the ground before the TDRSS becomes operational. In the event we are unable to correct this communications problem, information will be once again available when the TDRSS becomes operational later this year.
IRAS, an extremely difficult and technologically challenging mission, developed in cooperation with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, will execute the first comprehensive survey of the infrared sky, providing a new window to the universe. It is expected to revolutionize astronomy in the same way that the first ultraviolet and X-ray satellites did in the last two decades.
The Search and Rescue Satellite project, another significant international cooperative endeavor, began system checkout in September, and demonstrated its effectiveness almost immediately when a small aircraft which had crashed in a remote region in British Columbia was detected by the system. The injured pilot and two passengers were rescued. By mid-November, the new system was directly credited with saving ten lives in aircraft and marine accidents.
Our fiscal year 1984 budget request of $1068.0 million for Space Science and Applications supports the two new initiatives I mentioned earlier-the Venus Radar Mapper and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite-and will enable us to pursue a vigorous program. The proposed budget supports the completion of the Landsat-D' spacecraft; it continues the Space Telescope development leading to a launch in 1985. As indicated earlier in my statement, we are currently reviewing the Space Telescope project; review will likey lead to revised schedule and runout cost estimates. The fiscal year 1984 budget also continues Galileo development leading to a single Shuttle/Centaur launch in 1986; and it continues International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) instrument development support leading toward launch in 1986. It continues the hardware development of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) leading toward a planned launch in 1988. It supports a 1984 launch for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE); technology development and analysis of flight experiments in Materials Processing; operation of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Pioneers 6 through 11, and Voyagers 1 and 2; support for the Infrared Telescope Facility and the Lunar Curatorial Facility; and continued development of experiments to understand the effects of weightlessness on man.
The Explorer development funding level is somewhat higher than in fiscal year 1983 because this program offers important opportunities to address key space science questions in a highly cost effective manner. This level of fiscal year 1984 funds will allow us to complete development of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE), a project to determine how particles from the solar wind enter the Earth's magnetosphere; will support development activities for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. The fiscal year 1984 program will support initiation of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), which is expected to reveal new information on the structure and composition of interstellar media.
This proposed Space Science and Applications budget represents a commitment to maintain the momentum in scientific and technical excellence that has had such an important impact on the Nation and the world. It will continue the outstanding effort of the past, initiate new activities, and assure the preservation of the scientific research base that is critical to United States leadership in space.
For fiscal year 1984, we are requesting $4 million for Technology Utilization to continue the transfer of NASA-developed technology to U.S. industry, the public
and other Government agencies. We have two primary program objectives: (1) to target applications engineering efforts to increase productivity in U.S. manufacturing industries, and (2) to improve the quality of life and workforce through bioengineering and rehabilitation projects. We intend to enhance public sector technology applications projects in conjunction with other mission-oriented Federal agencies and industry with a view toward shifting budgetary responsibility for resultant projects to those entities.
AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY
In fiscal year 1984, a total of $300.3 million is requested for NASA's Research and Technology program, to provide the technology advances essential to the continued U.S. leadership in aeronautics. A strong base of technology is needed to develop future U.S. aircraft which will enhance our competitive position in the world aviation marketplace, and to provide continued superiority of the Nation's military aircraft. NASA's fiscal year 1984 budget request continues to emphasize a strong fundamental research and technology base of activities as well as focused systems research activities, and constitutes a balanced effort in response to the Administration's recently enunciated aeronautics policy.
In fiscal year 1984, emphasis in fluid and thermal physics will be applied to turbulent drag reduction, internal computational fluid dynamics, and high Reynolds number cryogenic testing to be provided by the National Transonic Facility at NASA's Langley Research Center. This facility, which will become operational in June 1983, will provide the most advanced transonic speed test capability in the world. Using models of the world's most advanced aircraft, this facility will allow near exact simulation of flight conditions. Areas of emphasis in materials and structures will include ceramics, new composite materials, and transport crash dynamics. In controls and human factors, new research capabilities will be provided by the Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility at the Ames Research Center and the Avionics Integration Research Laboratory at the Langley Research Center. The upgrading of capabilities in computer science and applications will continue to receive major emphasis, with expanded efforts directed toward technology for fault tolerant systems. In propulsion, emphasis will be placed on intermittent combustion engines, helicopter and turboprop transmissions, engine dynamics and stall recovery, and small radial turbomachinery. Rotorcraft research will stress noise and vibration reduction and the unsteady aerodynamics of rotors. Research will also be conducted to investigate guidance and control for all-weather rotorcraft operations, composite tilt rotor blades and technologies aimed at improving performance and flying qualities of the tilt rotor vehicle class. Areas of emphasis in high-performance aircraft research will include supersonic cruise technology, hypersonic propulsion, structures, configuration aerodynamics, and propulsion/airframe integration. Also included will be flight evaluations of advanced concepts using special F-16 and F-111 aircraft to investigate new technologies for enhancement of fighter performance. The proof-ofconcept flight research phase of the NASA/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) X-29A forward swept wing vehicle will begin, and increased effort will be provided in the Turbine Engine Hot Section Technology program to study means for increasing engine performance and durability. In subsonic aircraft, research emphasis will be placed on commuter aircraft technology, icing and lightning research, natural laminar flow, and problem areas identified in coordination with the Federal Aviation Administration as critical to improved air safety and operations.
In fiscal year 1984, program augmentations are planned in the important longlead, high-risk technology areas: numerical aerodynamic simulation, large composite structures, and rotorcraft. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation initiative will significantly augment the Nation's program in computational fluid dynamics and other areas of computational physics. It will provide advanced capability for users nationwide for computational aerodynamics, computational chemistry, and other complex analytical problems. Advanced composite structures technology will address thick, load-critical primary structures representative of large aircraft wingstructure sections; curved panels to investigate fuselage design technology problems; and new generation materials for increased toughness and impact resistance. Technology for next-generation rotorcraft will pursue further understanding relative to two high-speed rotorcraft concepts-the advanced tilt rotor technology and the DARPA X-wing utilizing NASA's Rotor Systems Research Aircraft.
SPACE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY
NASA's fiscal year 1984 Space Research and Technology request of $138 million will focus on providing advanced technology in support of NASA's role of maintaining the U.S. preeminence in space. This investment in research and technology is essential for improving operational capability, reliability, and affordability of existing and planned NASĂ missions, as well as providing the technology base and technology options for rapidly expanding military and commercial space interests.
The fiscal year 1984 budget continues to emphasize a strong Research and Technology (R&T) base of activities in the discipline areas of fluid and thermal physics, chemical propulsion, materials and structures, computer science and electronics, space energy conversion, controls and human factors, and space data and communications. The computer science and space human factors disciplinary activities represent new elements in the R&T base that respond to important future systems needs, as well as to identifiable, high-leverage, technological advancements. In addition, activities in spacecraft, transportation, and platform systems research are designed to study the inter-relationships of discipline technology from an integrated systems point of view. These efforts are critical to the successful transition of technology from the laboratory to useful application. It is encouraging that a cooperative program around NASA, DARPA and DOE on space nuclear power technology was reached and a Memorandum of Understanding was signed on February 11, 1983. In fiscal year 1984, a modest expansion to the base program in platform systems is planned to investigate technology options that could enhance capabilities and growth potential of permanent space facilities.
The Systems Technology effort in fiscal year 1984 will focus on the following technology missions or experiments: launch of the long-duration exposure facility, the solar array flight experiment, solar cell calibration facility, tribology experiment, reflight of the feature identification and location experiment, launch of the ion auxiliary propulsion system, design activity on a space technology experiment platform, and a cryogenic fluid management facility.
During the past year, NASA has continued to support the Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies in energy research and technology development. Important progress was made by NASA's Lewis Research Center in advancing ceramic component technology for the automotive gas turbine, and in improving the life and performance of advanced phosphoric acid fuel cell systems.
In fiscal year 1984, NASA will continue to support those energy programs which were initiated in prior years, and which the DOE or other sponsoring agencies desire NASA to continue. We intend to complete our previous commitments as efficiently as possible to ensure the integrity of the government investment made to date. For the future, it will be our policy to concentrate on energy programs which have objectives which are synergistic with NASA's aeronautics and space programs.
SPACE TRACKING AND DATA SYSTEMS
For the Space Tracking and Data Systems program in fiscal year 1984, NASA is requesting a total of $700.2 million, which includes $294.7 million for acquisition of service via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as well as support of TDRSS related elements. This request provides for the continuation of the vital tracking, command telemetry and data acquisition support to meet the requirements for all NASA flight programs.
The Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) and the Deep Space Network (DSN) will continue to provide support to both near-Earth orbiting satellities, including the Space Shuttle operational flights and deep space probes. In fiscal year 1984, numerous applications and scientific Earth-orbiting and planetary missions will be supported.
The launch of the first and second TDRS spacecraft are scheduled to be launched in 1983. The TDRSS is planned for full operational capability in 1984. The TDRSS service contract has been restructured to convert the TDRSS from a shared system providing both support of government space missions and commercial communications satellite services, to a system dedicated to providing support to space missions. The fiscal year 1984 budget request reflects the initial full year funding requirements for TDRSS service and the phaseout of most of the STDN ground stations after TDRSS is operational. Ground stations planned to be closed during fiscal year 1984 are Guam, Hawaii, Ascension, Santiago, Dakar, and Botswana, with termination of STS VHF voice communications from Yarragadee, Australia, and the AF
Indian Ocean site. The remaining facilities will then be consolidated with the DSN stations under management of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), or dedicated to support of launch and landing operations. The consolidation will result in a single ground network to support geosynchronous, highly elliptical, and all planetary missions.
CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES
The Construction of Facilities (CoF) request for fiscal year 1984 totals $150.5 million. Slightly over one-third of the request, $53.3 million, is required for Space Shuttle and payload facilities. The request includes $24 million for aeronautics and space technology activities and $58 million for repair, rehabilitation and modification, minor construction, and facility planning and design. The fiscal year 1984 CoF request strikes an appropriate balance between NASA's need to meet increasing Shuttle flight rates, improve Shuttle manufacturing and processing efficiencies, provide enhancements of existing facilities to afford improved research and testing capabilities, and to repair and preserve our present physical plant.
The Space Shuttle CoF projects are in direct support of achieving a 24-flight-peryear capability. Based on the experience to date, it is NASA's current assessment that two Mobile Launcher Platforms (MLP'S) can support up to 16 flights per year. Thus, the project for modifying a third mobile launcher platform for Shuttle use, at a cost of $27.3 million, is required to reach 24 flights per year from NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The other large Shuttle-related projects reflected in the request are the construction of a Cargo Hazardous Processing Facility at KSC ($9 million), and some additional modifications to the External Tank (ET) manufacturing facilities ($11.7 million) at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans.
In the non-Space Shuttle area, our fiscal year 1984 construction request is similar to those of recent years, providing for prudent investments necessary to preserve and improve existing research facility capabilities. An example is the Small Engine Component Testing Facility proposed for construction at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Modification of test cells in the Engine Research Building at LeRC are necessary in order that a critical need for testing and development of small turbine engines can be met. This project is typical of our continuing emphasis on modifying and improving existing facilities to meet new research and technology needs of the country.
Of equal importance is the $58 million requested in fiscal year 1984 for minor facility projects. These are critical to the repair and preservation of an aging physical plant and to ensure that NASA's facilities are capable of meeting today's technology needs.
RESEARCH AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
The Research and Program Management request for fiscal year 1984 is $1,247.5 million. About three-fourths of this is required for civil service salaries and related costs. About two percent is for travel which is vital to the management of our R&D programs. The balance is for facility support and related goods and services necessary for the operation of NASA Centers.
The fiscal year 1984 plan provides for a NASA civil service workforce at approximately the present level, the first time in several years that we have not been planning to accomplish some kind of personnel reduction in the current and budget years. Staffing stability of this kind is important for an R&D organization such as NASA. It allows us the opportunity to hire new scientists and engineers to assure the vitality of our technical workforce. It will also enable us to solve minor skill-mix problems that arose in previous years when we were faced with accommodating ceiling reductions. In fiscal years 1983 and 1984 we will be able to plan our hiring in a more effective manner. Although I believe that NASA's workforce is one of the strongest and most creative in the world, we need the influx of people with new viewpoints, different skills, and knowledge of the latest technology in many diverse areas to maintain and improve this outstanding national asset.
The requested R&PM funds will provide for essentially the same level of operations in fiscal year 1984 as planned in fiscal year 1983, considering estimated price levels which are expected to rise at a significantly slower rate than we have experienced in the past years.
As you are aware, the President is very interested in increasing the productivity and improving the quality of all governmental activities. In order to provide leadership in this area and to provide coordination for the many productivity-related activities in both Headquarters and at the Centers, I have formed a steering committee composed of the top management officials of the Agency. The steering Commi