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ly be restored. We concur with the analysis of the Division of Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society regarding these increments and endorse their recommendations.

Shuttle/spacelab payload development (physics and astronomy, and space plasma physics of environmental observations) additional $6 million. In response to an Announcement of Opportunity issued by NASA in 1978, about 300 proposals were recieved and 29 U.S. funded Principal Investigator (PI) class experiments were selected. Of these 29, only 3 have been funded for development and 13 more for definition studies, leaving 13 selected but not funded. With the successful completion of the Shuttle orbital test flight program, we urge that the potential afforded by Shuttle for useful science be realized by a more vigorous program of PI-class experiments. We urge NASA to study the Spacelab program and modify the ground rules for experiment implementation so that development of substantially more PI-class instruments can be carried out without significant increase in the budget. Effective university participation depends on reducing costs and simplifying procedures for PI experiments on Spacelab. At the same time additional funding of $6 million would permit further activity in definition and development of these selected investigations.

Suborbital programs-additonal $2 million.-An addition of $2 million to the sounding rocket program for Spartan development would permit significant advance in one realistic approach to the process of Shuttle experiment flight. The Spartan program takes payloads developed under the suborbital sounding rocket program, and uses Shuttle to place them in orbit and retrieve them two or three days later. As part of the fiscal year 1983 budget action in Congress last year, $1 million was added to the suborbital program and this addition is being applied to the sounding rocket program for Spartan. The fiscal year 1984 sounding rocket line in the President's budget seems to be based upon the fiscal year 1983 budget before this $1 million was added.

Laboratory equipment—recommended addition of $6 million to R&A.-We propose beginning a new program of upgrading laboratory capital equipment at universities. A decade of underfunding has resulted in a general obsolesence of the research equipment used in universities for basic studies aimed at development of concepts and instruments for future space science missions, and at analysis and interpretation of data from previous missions. This problem of NASA-funded research groups is part of a general problem in universities which has been addressed in recent statements by Dr. Keyworth. We consider it essential that NASA develop a new program of grants for acquisition of research equipment at universities and recommend an increment of $6 million specifically toward this end, with $3 million in the Physics and Astronomy R&A, $2 million in Planetary Exploration R&A, and $1 million in Space Physics R&A.

All of the items enumerated so far add up to a total of $40 million, which is only about 0.5 percent of the total NASA budget. Yet this relatively small amount provides high leverage in terms of technological innovation and scientific advancement. These funds would go a long way towards restoring a degree of relative health in space science activities at the nation's research universities.

Our detailed analysis of the space science budget and its development from fiscal year 1981 is given in Appendix A for your information and perusal.

I would also like to comment briefly on two other areas of the Subcommittee's

concern:

(1) The OTA Technical Memorandum on space science. We are in general agreement with the general thrust of this memorandum, as far as it goes. The report emphasized the difficulties of planetary science, which appeared to be the most pressing issue at the time. However, the predicament of other branches of space science, including solar and magnetospheric physics and X-ray astronomy, is equally severe. The end result is that the United States is slowly dropping out of several fields of space science because of the interminable studies, delays, and eventual cancellation of several well-planned programs in the late seventies and early eighties. As a consequence, leadership in space sciences may well pass to other countries with a more determined approach, such as Germany, France, Japan and the U.S.S.R. A more detailed discussion of these issues, prepared by Professor E. N. Parker of the University of Chicago and reflecting the thinking of the SSWG, is appended to this statement as Appendix B.

(2) The SSWG is most favorable to the continued development of the Space Telescope and its proposed operation through the ST Science Institute. It is a good example of NASA's development of a facility whereby access is provided to the university community through competitive selection of focal point instrumentation and of guest observers.

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Finally, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, let me say that, on behalf of the Space Science Working Group. I am most appreciative of the opportunity to present the concerns of the nation's leading research universities to this Subcommittee.

APPENDIX A

SPACE SCIENCE AT UNIVERSITIES IN THE FISCAL YEAR 1984 NASA BUDGET

INTRODUCTION

This report summarizes the effect on space science of the President's proposed fiscal year 1984 NASA budget. (See Table 1 attached) It emphasizes aspects of the budget of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) which fund research at universities.

The proposed budget includes two valuable new items, a new start for the Venus Radar Mapper and a significant augmentation in the Explorer budget. Both of these spaceflight programs are of great value to space science, and of special interest to university scientists.

At the same time the fiscal year 1984 budget continues a serious erosion of the science base support for research and analysis, particularly in the Planetary Exploration program, although the rate of erosion is not as drastic as was proposed a year ago in the President's fiscal year 1983 budget.

BACKGROUND

The lines of NASA's budget which provide the most research funding to universities are Research and Analysis (R&A) and Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MO&DA). There is an R&A line in each of the OSSA programs and an MO&DA or an Extended Mission Operation line in most of the programs. Funds for R&A support basic research programs from which many relatively inexpensive science results emerge and from which come the new concepts that are the foundation for future major spaceflight missions. The MO&DA line principally supports operation of spacecraft which are in orbit and analysis of data from operating and recently terminated spacecraft.

A year ago, the fiscal year 1982 operating plan and the President's proposed fiscal year 1983 budget contained drastic cuts compared to fiscal year 1981 in the Planetary program for both R&A and MO&DA, as well as significant but less drastic cuts in real support levels (after accounting for inflation) in Physics and Astronomy. Analysis by the Space Science Working Group showed that an additional $60 million ($40 million in Planetary Exploration and $20 million in Physics and Astronomy) was needed in the fiscal year 1983 budget to preserve the (already tight) fiscal year 1981 level of research effort. Action on the fiscal year 1983 budget by the Congress, adding $27 million to the Planetary budget and $5 million to Physics and Astronomy, significantly reduced the damaging effects of the proposed budget. The result has been that, while fiscal year 1983 sees a continued belt-tightening in which inflation is eroding the level of university research, the Planetary program has been saved from dismantling.

While the proposed fiscal year 1984 budget does not contain cuts as drastic as those which were proposed for fiscal year 1983, it still imposes a substantial decrease in support for R&A below fiscal year 1981 levels. The problem is especially evident in the Planetary R&A line, for which the proposed fiscal year 1984 level is 10 percent below the fiscal year 1983 operating plan, which in turn is not quite at the fiscal year 1981 level. Following is a line-by-line summary of the space science budget.

PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

Space telescope development.-The reduction from fiscal year 1983 to fiscal year 1984 is as expected since the peak development costs are past. ST continues toward a 1985 launch, and promises to be an extremely valuable astronomical observatory. Gamma ray observatory development. The increase from fiscal year 1983 to fiscal year 1984 is as expected as peak development costs (in 1985) approach. This important advance in high-energy astrophysics is proceeding toward a 1988 launch. Shuttle/Spacelab payload development.-The fiscal year 1984 budget level is a 12 percent increase over fiscal year 1983. This level permits continued development of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), as well as definition of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facilities (SIRTF) two major facilities designed for repeated flights; these are

of great value to solar physics and to infra-red astronomy respectively. Also under this budget line are data analysis of Spacelab-1, scheduled for launch in 1983, and continued development of the Spacelab-2 experiments scheduled for launch in 1985 and of three ultraviolet instruments (designated OSS-3) scheduled for launch in 1986 to observe Comet Halley. The line includes $2 million for studies to define potential payloads for a space station. The proposed fiscal year 1984 funding level will permit the start of development of three X-ray astronomy instruments (designated OSS-2) which had been selected but not funded for development in 1979 as a result of the Announcement of Opportunity for Spacelab payloads.

There is a major backlog of other "selected but not funded" investigations for Spacelab which will remain unfunded in fiscal year 1984. Of 29 U.S. experiments of the principal investigator (PI) type (as contrasted to facilities) which were selected in 1979, by December 1982 only 3 (OSS-3) have been funded for development, 13 have received some definition study funding, and another 13 have received no funding.

Explorer development.-The fiscal year 1984 budget requests a significant augmentation of the funding level for this line, from $34.3 million in fiscal year 1983 to $48.7 million in fiscal year 1984. The Explorer program is of great value to space science. Its most recent success was the launch, in January of this year, of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The Explorer program is of special importance to universities because it provides an ongoing level of support for relatively small, usually PI class spaceflight investigations. This line has been fixed near $30 million for many years, with the result that inflation has forced a long stretch-out of the Explorer program. The proposed fiscal year 1984 augmentation makes a significant step toward restoring the productivity of this program and is responsive to one of the recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Astronomy Survey Committee. It will permit an fiscal year 1984 start on development of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), a university-based, principal investigator experiment. The EUVE was selected for flight as a result of a competitive Announcement of Opportunity seven years ago and has been on hold ever since. We note with approval that the queue of previously selected Explorers has been reduced sufficiently to permit the recent selection of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE) for future development. Definition studies for XTE are funded in this 1984 budget, and a development start is likely in late 1985. The budget also permits continued development of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE), the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), and U.S. instrumentation which fly on the German Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT).

Mission operations and data analysis.-This line in the Physics and Astronomy budget appears to be funded at an adequate level in fiscal year 1984 to support operations and analysis of the IRAS, AMPTE, and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), and extended analysis of data from the High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO). The budget also supports the in-orbit repair and continued operation of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), and preparation for Space Telescope operations and refurbishment. The SMM repair mission will provide a valuable extension of this significant solar investigation, as well as the first demonstration of the in-orbit repair capability of the Shuttle.

Research and analysis.-This critical line of the budget shows a $1 million (3.5 percent) increase from fiscal year 1983 to fiscal year 1984. Apparently the fiscal year 1984 proposal carries an inflationary increase of about 10 percent over the proposed fiscal year 1983 budget, ignoring the $2 million which was added to this line as a result of the fiscal year 1983 Congressional action. While this looks like a healthy increase over fiscal year 1982, it must be remembered that the fiscal year 1982 budget was 13 percent below that of fiscal year 1981 in this line. In fact, the proposed fiscal year 1984 budget is only about 13 percent above the fiscal year 1981 budget, certainly not an inflationary growth; and this budget had fallen 15 percent between fiscal year 1979 and fiscal year 1981. The Physics and Astronomy R&A includes three subdivisions: Supporting Research and Technology (SR&T) which funds basic experimental and theoretical research, principally at universities; this part is down $0.5 million from fiscal year 1983. Advanced Technology Development (ATD), is up $1.2 million from fiscal year 1983; this part will principally be used for studies of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), a 1.2 m X-ray telescope which was the highest priority in the recent National Academy of Science Astronomy Survey Committee report. Data Analysis of past missions is up $0.3 million from fiscal year 1983.

(Note. It is difficult to compare the fiscal year 1984 budget document, which includes figures for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, with earlier documents giving fiscal year 1981 figures because Space Plasma Physics R&A was included in the Physics

and Astronomy R&A line in fiscal year 1981 but now appears in Environmental Observations R&A where it is combined with some items that appeared in the suborbital part of Physics & Astronomy in fiscal year 1981. See Table 2.)

Suborbital programs.-This budget line supports aircraft, balloon, and sounding rocket programs which combine with R&A efforts to yield important scientific results at relatively low cost with relatively quick turn-around. These programs are ideally suited for university based research programs, particularly those involved in the training of graduate students. About half of the $5 million (11 percent) increase from fiscal year 1983 to fiscal year 1984 will pay for basic support of the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) which has been transferred from the National Science Foundation to NASA. While this transfer took effect at the beginning of fiscal year 1983, the full cost was not included in this line of the fiscal year 1983 budget. Aside from the increase for the NSBF, it appears that the fiscal year 1984 budget proposal represents an increase of about 7 percent over the proposed fiscal year 1983 budget, and ignores the $1 million which was added to the sounding rocket program as a result of the Congressional action.

(As with the R&A line, direct comparison of the current budget proposal with fiscal year 1981 levels is difficult because of transfer of the Applications Airborne program into this line. See Table 3.)

PLANETARY EXPLORATION

Galileo development.-The proposed fiscal year 1984 budget includes funding for continuation of the Galileo program, progressing toward a launch in 1986. This program is well past its peak development costs, so this budget line is $19 million lower in fiscal year 1984 than in fiscal year 1983.

Venus radar mapper (VRM).—The President's budget proposes $29 million for a fiscal year 1984 new start of this mission. This is the first planetary new start since that of Galileo in fiscal year 1978. VRM, which has the endorsement of the Space Science Board is a less ambitious exploration of Venus than the Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar (VOIR) mission which had been proposed by NASA a year ago for a new start, but was not included in the President's budget. VRM preserves the principal objective of VOIR, radar mapping of the entire planet, but does so with somewhat lower resolution and without several ancillary observations that had been part of VOIR. The projected runout costs of VRM through fiscal year 1988, the proposed year of launch, are approximately $340 million, compared with roughly twice that for VOIR. VRM is an extremely valuable step in planetary exploration which will have the active participation of a number of university scientists.

International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM).—The fiscal year 1984 budget continues to fund the US experimenters on the European ISPM spacecraft which is also scheduled for 1986 launch.

Mission operations and data analysis.—The proposed level of $43.4 million, up 13 percent from the fiscal year 1983 operating plan, appears to be adequate for operation of the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, which had been threatened with termination by the President's fiscal year 1983 proposal and were saved by Congressional action. It also includes funds for development of systems needed for operation of Galileo and ISPM.

Research and analysis.-Here we have a continued serious erosion of the science base upon which the planetary program rests. The proposed fiscal year 1984 level of $45.5 million is 10 percent lower than the fiscal year 1981 level of $50.7 million. While this is not as damaging as the 30 percent cut which had been proposed a year ago for fiscal year 1983, it is still a drastic reduction when 3 years' inflation is considered. While the fiscal year 1984 proposed level is $10 million higher than the President's fiscal year 1983 proposal, it is nearly $5 million lower than the actual fiscal year 1983 operating plan which resulted from Congressional action on the fiscal year 1983 budget. This 10 percent cut is distributed almost uniformly over all the planetary R&A components except for the Halley's Comet program which remains at $2.2 million in fiscal year 1984, the same as fiscal year 1983.

ENVIRONMENTAL OBSERVATIONS

Research and analysis.-R&A in Environmental Observations includes programs in upper atmosphere, atmospheric dynamics, oceans, and space plasma physics. The space plasma physics part was previously included in the Physics & Astronomy R&A, (see Table 2) and this part is seen as space science while the other aspects of the Environmental Observations program are more directed toward space applications. Fiscal year 1984 shows modest growth in these lines from fiscal year 1983. One item of concern to the space plasma physics community is the relatively low

priority in Environmental Observations on definition of the mission Origin of Plasmas in the Earth's Neighborhood (OPEN) for which experimenters were selected two years ago. This mission had enjoyed higher priority when space plasmas were part of Physics and Astronomy. The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) portion of this R&A line which includes funding for OPEN definition drops from $3.5 million in fiscal year 1983 to $1.8 million in fiscal year 1984, resulting in serious cuts for the definition efforts of experimenters who have been selected for this mission.

Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).-Development of experiments for this mission continues but the fiscal year 1984 budget does not permit a start of the spacecraft development. It is hoped that this new start will occur in early 1985. UARS will provide the first global measurements of stratospheric and mesopheric ozone, chemical species that affect ozone, energy inputs, temperatures and winds. TABLE 1.-SPACE SCIENCE IN THE NASA OSSA BUDGET

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1 These two lines did not include the same items in fiscal year 1981 as in later years and so fiscal year 1981 numbers are not directly comparable. See tables 2 and 3.

2 In fiscal year 1981 ISPM was in the physics and astronomy program, and included a U.S. spacecraft (since deleted) in addition to U.S. experiments on a European spacecraft.

In fiscal year 1981 environmental R&A did not include space physics, which was in pysics and astronomy R&A (See table 2).

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