Strange Creatures: Anthropology in Antiquity
Bloomsbury Academic, 2006 M06 8 - 256 pages
Traces the anthropological and ethnological theories of the ancient Greeks and Romans from the creation of the world to the invention of the Americas. In ancient Greek and Roman thinking, whether the world is flat or spherical it will have imaginary boundaries and liminal areas where the norms of nature and culture are thought to break down. Analogies are constantly drawn between 'primitive' peoples at the 'edges of the world' and 'primitive' people in prehistory. Distance, both in time and space, leads to difference, and the idea that strange things happen out there or happened back then dominates Greek and Roman thinking on other cultures. This book examines ancient ideas of the creation of the world, the beginnings of life and origin of species, humans and animals, utopias and blessed islands, and 'barbarian' cultures beyond the Mediterranean world, before going on to trace the influence of ancient anthropological and ethnological thought on the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.We begin with primordial chaos and end with the invention of the Americas, taking in on the way many strange creatures, among them the noble or ignoble savages of Britain, Gaul and Ireland, the Man-faced Ox-creatures of Empedocles, the Dog-heads of India, the Amazons, Centaurs, Columbus, and the Tupinamba of Brazil.
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However , both of these can be paralleled in other sources : Archelaus is reported to have the first creatures feeding on a slime produced by the earth , and Diodorus ' pustules and membranes are similar to Lucretius wombs .
( Anon . , On Marvellous Reports 84.836b - 837a , c . fourth century BC ) The islands described here are clearly what we call the Canary Islands , real islands but which have attracted the idea of the Isles of the Blessed , which has ...
A comment of Sir Walter Ralegh in the 1590s when told that in Guiana there are men with eyes in their shoulders and mouths in the middle of their chests may be instructive : ' such a nation was written of by Mandeville , whose reports ...
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The Origin of Life and the Origin of Species
Ancient Theories of Prehistory and the Evolution of Society
Blessed Islands and Blessed Lands
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