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increased penetration of improved technologies in u.s. and
improved information and accelerating demand for energy efficiency investments will encourage changes in utility regulations relating to potential efficiency investments.
We believe that these measures can have substantial effects.
To address energy efficiency objectives, EPA has developed a fivepart strategy: (1) corporate and government purchasing; (2) enhanced product markets; (3) regulatory and legal reforms; (4) development and demonstration of prevention, control, and mitigation technologies which, wherever possible, also recover
energy; and (5) expanded international markets.
EPA believes that
this strategy of efficiently using energy resources can costeffectively achieve reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases below the levels which they would otherwise reach in future years, while at the same time promote economic growth.
In the last two decades, U.S. energy consumption per unit of
GNP has fallen by 30%, mostly as a result of the normal functioning
of the market. "Green Lights" and related EPA programs targeted at electricity consumption are part of an overall movement to improve
the efficiency of energy use,
including the Administration's
National Energy Strategy, as well as utilities' integrated resource
planning and demand-side management programs.
We are coordinating
closely with the Department of Energy on all of these efforts. The best way to explain how this strategy would work is to place it in
the context of programs that EPA has already developed,
currently developing, in each of these strategic areas.
Corporate and Government Purchasing
Our flagship program in the area of corporate and government
purchasing is "Green Lights," which was formally launched January 16, 1991. Green Lights is a voluntary pollution prevention partnership between EPA
and corporations, States local governments. Green Lights partners commit to evaluating current lighting needs throughout their facilities and installing energyefficient lighting wherever it is profitable (as measured by the prime rate plus 6 percent). EPA provides technical assistance
through building survey software, support to a product testing
EPA believes this program will be successful, since over 400
participants already signed up--nearly two billion square feet
committed--which is more than the office space in New York, Los
Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Dallas and Detroit combined.
While corporations have five years to complete their upgrades, results from preliminary installations look quite promising: reports received indicate that savings of 40-75% in lighting electricity consumption have been realized, exceeding
previously published technical estimates.
indicate that investment in energy efficient lighting resulting
from utility including integral resource planning and demand-side
management, as well as Green Lights--could lower greenhouse gas
emissions from electricity production by millions of tons.
Why have these lighting upgrades not happened earlier, given that the investments in efficient lighting products all profitable?
There are a variety of reasons. The facilities manager is responsible for lighting--and usually also charged with making the elevators run and ensuring that the building temperature
opportunities exist for improving efficiency in lighting and saving money, and able to sort through the various products and their claims, adequate and reliable information and the organizational
EPA's Green Lights program requires participants to establish efficient lighting as a strategic corporate decision undertaken at
high level within the corporation and it also provides information regarding the coordination of options available from the existing range of lighting products as a system. The software, product testing and financing information support provided by EPA helps the corporation make the most attractive upgrades. And the public recognition afforded by the Green Lights program, as well as the significant potential savings, provide incentives for corporate leaders to commit to improving their energy efficiency. At the
EPA is currently developing several other programs that could operate similarly to the Green Lights model with regard to corporate and government purchasing; green commercial buildings; and, green energy corporations.
The Green Buildings program would focus primarily on buildingshell improvements. As with lighting, efficient technologies exist today that could significantly reduce building energy needs. These technologies include variable speed drives for air handlers and chillers, reflective painting on rooftops and window improvements.
Following up on interest from some
partners, EPA is also exploring the possibility of a holistic program to stimulate corporate energy efficiency across the board-in other words, a green energy corporation program that would require participants to ensure that all equipment purchases are consistent with the principles of life-cycle profitability.
EPA's Green Lights--and similar "green" programs--demonstrate that significant pollution prevention may be achieved by providing information and technical advice to corporations and government
Enhanced Product Markets
A second aspect of EPA's approach is to provide signals to manufacturers that markets exist for the most efficient technologies that manufacturers can produce. EPA's premiere example of enhanced product markets is the "Golden Carrot" super efficient refrigerator program. The Golden Carrot program takes the rebates utilities have agreed to provide to their customers who
buy efficient refrigerators after 1994 and aggregates them into a
single bid pool. Manufacturers then bid on this pool of rebate money. The bid pool is offered to the manufacturer that is able to provide the greatest number of (non-chlorofluorocarbon using) super-efficient refrigerators at the least cost by 1994 (or 1995).
Under present law, the Department of Energy (DOE) standard is applied to all refrigerators as a minimum standard. The winning refrigerator model is required to be 25 percent more efficient than
the 1993 DOE appliance standard, and may be as much as 50 percent
The draft request for proposals (RFP) is currently
being reviewed by the public and will be offered in June of this year. The first super-efficient refrigerators will be shipped as
The rebates will be awarded directly to the
Opportunities for many other "Golden Carrot" programs exist. In fact, an organization has recently been formed by EPA, utilities and conservation groups--the Consortium for Energy Efficiency--to coordinate "Golden Carrot" and other utility demand-side management
The consortium strives for similar approaches among