« PreviousContinue »
11. First se)
*Adverse effocts of clito change" means changes in the physical environment or biota rosulting from climate change, which have significant deleterious offects on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems or on the operations of socio-economic systems or on human health and welfare.
("As forestation" means forost stands established (artificially) con land which proviously did not carry forest.)]
*Clinto change" means a change of climate which is attributed directly
*ciwt. systa" means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphore, Including cryosphere, oceans and all seas, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions.
! "Daforestation" means change of land use or depletion of crown cover to los. than 101.)
"Sissions" means the roloase of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere lover a specified aro and period of time. )
("Porost" means an ecological system with a minimum of 101 crown cover of tries and/or bamboos, generally associated with wild flora, fauna, and natural soil conditions, and not subject to agricultural practices.)
("Porust" means an ecological system in which biomass predominates, associated with wild flora, fauna and natural soil conditions, and not subject to seasonal cropping practicos).
("Porust degradation' means changes within the forest class which
1/ "Orvaahouse gasos" means those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-enit intrared radiation, (excluding gases already controlled by other conventions).
"Xot adnions" means the difference between the amount of a greenhouse gas coloured to and the amount removed from the atmosphere by all sources and all sinks, rospectively, a crosted or modified by anthropogenic activities, taken over i gpacified aros and period of time, as calculated by agreed criteria..
("Not fuissions" means increase in the cumulative atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from anthropogenic activity, depending on the size of the increase in concentration of such greenhouse gas, the radiative property of the gas involved, the length of time the gas is 11koly to remain in the atmosphere and the concentration of greenhouse gases already present in the atmosphore, calculated by determining their sources and mechanism. for their eventual removal from the atmosphere (their man made and natural sinks on a global scale)). 1 *Precursors" moans gases which rouct choically in the atmosphere to produce greenhouse gases or which affect the lifetime of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
("Reforestation" means the establishment of forost stands (artificially! on land which carried forest within the previous 50 (100) yours for within living memory and involving the replacement of the provious crop by i now and essentially different crop.ji
"Renewablo qaergy" means energy derived from the harnessing of active natural energy flows such as solar, wind, hydrological, biomass, wave and tidal action and ocean thermal energy conversion.
"Rosorvoir" means a storage medium for greenhouse gases.
*Slako moans any process or activity which contributor to the removal of
groenhouse gas or the precursor of a greenhouse gas from the
("B" mans i mechanina, natural or man-made, for the removal of
1 The drafting group notes that the term "greenhouse gases" is used in some
* Source means any process or activity which releases (or contributes to the release of) greenhouse gas or o precursor of a greenhouse gas to the atmosphoro.
Second set) "Regional economic integration organisation" means an organization constituted by sovereign status of a given region which has competence in respect of matters governed by this convention or its protocols and has been duly authorized, in accordance with its intornal procedures, to sign, ratify, accopt, approve or accede to the instruments concerned.)
Two additional items were introduced in Working Group 11 for inclusion in the list of definitions: "aerosols" and "cliaring house".
IPCC will be asked to connent on the list of proposed definitions before the next session.
1. The right to development is an inallonable human right. All peoples have an equal right in matters rolating to reasonable living standardi. Economic development is the proroquisite for adopting measures to address climate change. The net emissions of developing countries must grow to meet their social and economic development needs.
2. All States have a duty to ala at sustainable development for the benefit of prosent and futuro generations. Protection of the global climate against human induced change should proceed in an integrated manner with economic dovelopment in the light of the specific conditions of such country, llwithout prejudice to the socio-economic dovelopment of doveloping countries). Measures to guard against man-made climate change should be integrated into all rolovant national development programmes Itaking into account that (ovolving! environmental standardo) valid for developed countries may have inappropriate and unwarranted social and economic costo in particular in developing countries (and countries with econoaie in transition)).
(3. All Status have an obligation to protect the Igloball climate system for the benefit of prosent and futur. gonoration of humankind on the basis of (intergenerational as well as intrigonerationall equity, and in accordance with (their)//developed and developing countries] common but differentiated responsibilities and capabilities (with a view to achieving convergence at a common per capita lovels and taking fully into account that the largest part of emissions of greenhouse gases has been originating from developed countries (and those countries have the main responsibility) (and should take the lead / in combating climate change and the adverse consequences thereot. 1
14. The Parties shall give full consideration to the specific noods and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse consequences of cllmato change and also those developing countries which would have to beur a disproportionato or abnormal burden under the convention.]
5. (Recognizing the need for) Parties to (the Convention shall) tako (costof tectivo) precautionary measures to anticipato l. provent, attack) or minimize the causes of, and mitigate the adverse consequence of, climate change. (Where there are throsti of serious or irreversible damage, 1 lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a roson for postponing such moduri.
6. States promote an open and balanced multilateral trading system. Bxcept on testi of a decision by the Conference of the Parties which should be consistent with the GATT, no country or group of countries shall introduco barriers to trade on the basis of cialni rolated to climate change.
1. Measurus taken to combat climate change should not introduce trade distortions inconsistent with the GATT or hinder the promotion of an open and multilateral trading system.
18. Those (developed) countries (identified ul lidirectlyl responsible for causing damage to the environment through inducing climate chango]/[ which are
mainly responsible for missions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere) should bear the responsibility for rectifying that damage 1. (By openly demonstrating their direct responsibility or negligence, those countries/land) shall compensate for environmental damage suffered by other countries or individuals in othor countries).)
19. Climate policies should be cost-effective to ensure global benefits at lowest possible costs. To achieve this, climate policies should be comprehensivo, include all rolovant sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, comprise all economic sectors, (include both limitation and adaptation measuros) and may be laplemented in cooperation with other Parties.)
10. In all fields related to the protection of the climato system, the Parties shall respect and act in accordance with the principle of sovereignty of States, which is applicable in any area of international cooperation.
11. The nood to improve the international economic environment for the developing countries and to promote thoir sustair economic development are prorequisites for enabling doveloping countries to participat. of foctively in the international efforts to protoct the global environment including climate protection. )
The ultimate objective of the Convention and any related legal instruments that might be agreed upon is to achieve, in accordance with the Principles set out in the above Articles, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level which would provent dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. Such a level should be reached within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not throtoned and to permit economic activity to develop in a sustainable and environmentally sound manner.
(The anthropogenic emissions of (alll groenhouse gasus, particularly carbon dioxide, fron states should converge at a common per capita level, taking into account not (carbon]/[groonhouse gas component) emissions during this contury as well as the development needs of developing countries. | |