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*Advorse ottocts of clluto change" means changes in the physical environment or biota resulting from climate change, which have significant deleterious ottects on the composition, rusilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems or on the operations of socio-economic systems or on human health and welfar..

("asforostation" means forost stands established (artificially) con land which proviously did not carry forest.ll

“clito change" means a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to naturil climate variability observed over comparable time periodo.

*Clinto systua" means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphoro, including cryosphere, oceans and all sous, biosphor, and geosphere and thois interactions.

("Doforostation" means change of land use or depletion of crown cover to les than 100.)

"Suissions" means the rolouse of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere cover a specified aroa and period of time. I

("Forest" means an ecological system with a minimum of 105 crown cover
of trees and/or bamboos, generally associated with wild flora, fauna,
and natural soil conditions, and not subject to agricultural practicos.)

("Porost" means an ecological system in which biomass predominatas, associated with wild flora, fauna and natural soil conditions, and not subject to seasonal cropping practicos).

('Porost degradation nouns changes within the forest class which
negatively affect the stand or site and, in particular, lower the
production capacity).

1/ "Orvaahouse gases" means those gaseous constituents of the
atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and co-emit
intrued radiation, (excluding gases already controlled by other

"Hot missions" means the difference between the amount of a greenhouse
ga roleused to and the amount removed from the atmosphere by all
sources and all sinks, coupectively, us croatod or modified by
anthropogenic activities, taken over • gpecified aru, and period of
time, as calculated by agreed criteria.

("Xot fuission." means incrouse in the cumulative atmospheric
concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from anthropogenic
activity, depending on the size of the increase in concentration of such
greenhouse gas, the radiative property of the gas involved, the length
of time the gas is likely to remain in the atmosphere and the
concentration of greenhouse gases already present in the atmosphoro,
calculated by determining thois sources and mechanism. for thoir
evontual removal from the atmosphere (their man made and natural sinks
on a global scalo)).
1 "Precursors“ moins guses which react chemically in the atmosphere to
produce greenhouse gases or which affect the lifetime of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere.

("loforestation" means the wstablishment of forest stands (artificially! on land which curried forest within the previous 50 (100) yours (or within living memory and involving the coplacement of the previous crop by i now and essentially differont crop. 1]

"Renewabl. a.rgt" moens energy derived from the harnessing of active natural energy flows such as solar, wind, hydrological, biomass, wave and tidal action and ocean thermal energy conversion.

*Reservoir" means i storage medium for greenhouse gases.

*Slak" means any process or activity which contributes to the removal of
u greenhouse gas or the procursor of a greenhouse gas from the

('slabo voans i mechanica, natural or man-made, for the removal of
greenhorn gesos and aerosols from the atmosphere).

1/ The drafting group notes that the term "greenhouse gases" is used in some places in the convention to mean "greenhouse gasos only and at other places to moun "greenhouse gases and their precursori*. from the point of view of drifting, the group coconnonds that the terms 'groenhouse gases" and "precursors" should be defined in Article 1 u proposed above and that the convention should use the expressions "greenhouse gases" and "greenhouse gase. and their precursors" as necessary throughout the text.

"source" moans any process or activity which releases (or contributes to the release of) o greenhouse gas or a precursor of a greenhouse gas to the atmosphor..

(11. second set)
"Regional economic iategration orgaaisation" means an organization
constituted by soveroign Status of a given region which has competence
in respect of matters governed by this convention or its protocols and
has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to
sign, ratify, accopt, approve or accede to the instruments concerned. I



Two additional items were introduced in Working Group II for inclusion
in the list of definitions: "aerosolo" and "cliaring house'.
IPCC will be asked to conment on the list of proposed definitions before
the next session.


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The right to dovolopment is an inalienable human right.

All peoples have an equal right in matters rolating to resonable living standardi. Economic development is the prerequisite for adopting mousurus to addrosa climate change. The net emissions of developing countries must grow to meet their social and economic development needs.

2. All Stato have a duty to ala at sustainable development for the benefit of prosent and future generations. Protection of the global cllmat. against human induced change should proceed in an integrated manner with economic development in the light of the specific conditions of each country. llwithout prejudice to the socio-economic development of developing countriej. Measures to guard against man-made climate change should be integrated into all relevant national development programmes (taking into account that (evolving! environmental standardo) valid for developed countries may have inappropriate and unwarranted social and economic coit, in particular in developing countries (and countries with econoaies in transition)).

(3. All Stato have an obligation to protect the Igloball climate system for the benefit of prosent and futur. gonoration of humankind on the basis of (intergenerational as well as intragenerational) equity, and in accordance with (their)//developed and developing countries) common but differentiated responsibilities and capabilities (with a view to achieving convergence at a common per capita lovels and taking fully into account that the largest part of wisions of greenhouse gases has been originating from developed countries (and those countries have the main responsibility) (and should take the lead / in combating cllmate change and the adverse consequences thereot.)

(4. The Parties shall give full consideration to the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those doveloping countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse consequences of climate change and also those developing countries which woud have to beu disproportionate or abnormal burden under the Convention. )

S. (Recognizing the need for) Parties to (the Convention shall) tako (costof tectivol precautionary measures to anticipate lo provent, attack) or minimize the causes of, and mitigate the adverse consequences of, clluate change. (Where ther. uro thruti of serious or irreversible damage, ] lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such modsur...

6. States Cui promote an open and balanced multilateral trading system. Except on the basis of a decision by the Conference of the parties which should be combistent with the GATT, no country or group of countries shall introduco barriors to trade on the basis of cialas rolated to climate change.

7. Measurus takon to combat climate change should not introduce trade distortions inconsistent with the GATT or hinder the promotion of an open and multilateral trading systea.

18. Those (developed countries (1dontitled us lidirectly, responsible for causing damage to the environment through inducing climate changol/l which are


mainly responsible for missions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphore) should bear the responsibility for rectifying that damage 1. (By openly demonstrating their direct responsibility or negligence, those countries)/(and) shall compensate for environmental damage suffered by other countries or individuals in other countries).)

19. cllmato policies should be cost-effective to ensure global benefits at lowest possible costs. To achieve this, cllmato policies should be comprohonsive, include all relevant sources and sinko of greenhouse gases, comprise all economic sectors, (include both ilmitation and adaptation nousuros) and may be implemented in cooperation with other parties.)

10. In all fields related to the protection of the climato system, the Parties shall respect and act in accordance with the principle of sovereignty of States, which is applicable in any eru of intornational cooperation.

11. The need to improve the international economic environment for the developing countries and to promote thoir sustained economic development are prerequisites for enabling developing countries to participato effectively in the international efforts to protect the global environment including climate protection. )


The ultimate objective of the Convention and any related legal instruments that might be agreed upon is to achieve, in accordance with the Principles set out in the above Articles, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a lovel which would provent dangerous anthropogenic intortoronce with clinato. Such a lovol should be reached within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to cllmato change, to ensure that food production is not throatened and to permit economic activity to dovolop in a suitainable and environmentally sound manner.

(The anthropogenic emissions of (alll greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, from states should converge'ać o common per capita level, taking into account not (carbon]/[groonhouse gas componont) caissions during this contury as well us the development needs of developing countries. Il

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