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NEW U.S. MEASURES TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE

The following actions represent measures the United States has begun to take in the areas of energy efficiency, transportation, the use of lower emitting supply technologies, agriculture and natural resources, and technology research and development. Also noted are examples of actions taken by the private sector and by our fifty states:

IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

To increase the efficient use of energy in the industrial, commercial and housing sectors we are:

strengthening energy efficiency standards for appliances

and equipment;
• expanding energy efficiency labelling programs;
• developing and encouraging the use of building efficiency

standards;
promoting the use of industrial energy efficiency audits;

and
• establishing voluntary public-private. "green"

partnerships in the areas of lighting, piping, commercial
buildings, computer systems, industrial motors and
refrigerator program, all of which are designed to
improve the efficiency of energy use.

--for example, over 300 major corporations and
utilities have committed to voluntary participation in
programs to renovate their facilities with high
efficiency lighting.

Deserving of special mention are the diverse set of state and utility efforts to cut electricity demand through integrated resource planning and demand side management initiatives.

TRANSPORTATION SECTOR IMPROVEMENTS

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector

we are:

encouraging intermodal shifts through pricing measures,

e.g., expanded use of tolls on Federal highways;
• increasing Federal purchases of alternative fuel vehicles;
• requiring centrally fueled fleets to purchase vehicles

capable of using alternative fuels;
increasing the use of public transit, vanpooling, and
ride-sharing by raising the limit on tax free commuter

subsidies;
• accelerating the development of a new generation of

battery technology for electric vehicles through

public-private consortia; and
• increasing the production of cost-competitive liquid

fuels, such as ethanol from non-food crops and other
renewable biomass sources through use of pilot programs.

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SUPPLY SIDE CHANGES TO LOWER EMITTING TECHNOLOGIES

To increase the use of lower emitting supply technologies we

are:

• streamlining natural gas pipeline construction review,

deregulating pipeline sales rates in competitive markets,

and improving gas pipeline transportation access;
• streamlining the nuclear plant licensing process and

developing standardized designs for the next generation

of power plants; • extending the renewable energy tax credit, proposing a

ten million dollar solar bank which will provide
subsidized financing for residential and commercial
applications of solar energy, and increasing the use of

municipal solid waste; and
• streamlining the hydroelectric licensing processes,

AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

In addition to the landfill regulations announced last year that will capture methane, the U.S. will encourage an increase in the capture of methane from coal mines and agricultural sources. In addition, programs exist which provide for:

• replacement of annual crop production systems on highly

erodable lands with perennial vegetation, enhancing soil

carbon reservoirs; and • expanded tree planting programs in forest and urban areas.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MEASURES

To facilitate the longer-term market penetration of more efficient and lower-emitting technologies, the U.S. is pursuing vigorous technology research and development programs in the following areas:

high performance aircraft engines, and high speed rail; • intelligent vehicles and highway systems; • building technologies; • industrial waste reduction and recycling; • the next generation of passively safe nuclear

reactors;
• cleaner, more efficient coal technologies, an industry

government program with 60% industry funding;
• developing cost effective liquid fuels from non-food

biomass;
• electric and hybrid vehicle development;

solar and wind energy technologies; and
• solid waste derived fuels.

The Global Change Research Program funding request for FY 93 was expanded by 24% to nearly $1.4 billion.

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INDUSTRY PROGRAMS WHICH REDUCE EMISSIONS

U.S industry has a number of domestic and international programs which will have the effect of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and it is studying other opportunities for action. Examples of existing domestic programs include:

• the National Association of Manufacturers, an association

representing 18,000 manufacturing organizations, has an education and action program to incorporate energy

efficiency into all aspects of manufacturing; the chemical industry's RESPONSIBLE CARE program promotes

both the efficient use of energy and measures to protect

the environment;
• the 33/50 program which reduces the use of toxic

chemicals and has over 300 participating companies. They
have committed to total reductions in releases of over

250 million pounds. • joint ventures have been established between the utility

and automobile industries to promote the development of

electric vehicles; and
• 200 utilities are spending $2 billion on 1,300

conservation programs.

Examples of international cooperation between U.S. industry and their counterparts in other countries include activity in every major industrial sector in all regions of the world. Using joint ventures and cooperative R&D, the U.S. automobile, petro-chemical, utility, mining, and manufacturing industries are promoting the international diffusion of technologies which will lower global greenhouse gas concentrations.

STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACTIONS

State and local governments in the U.S. are taking actions which will have the effect of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These actions are being carried out independently and/or cooperatively with the Federal Government. We have not yet completed an inventory of measures being taken by our fifty states, but an assessment of state and local programs will be provided later, together with estimates of how these programs will affect greenhouse gas emissions.

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What is technology cooperation? How do we integrate development and the environment? What are the needs? What are the barriers? What are the resources?

Dr. Pablo Mulas,
Electrical Research Institute (IIE), Cuernavaca, Mexico
Dr. Mukul Sattwal

,
Ministry of Environment, India

Dr. Michael Gluckman,
Electric Power Research Institute

Dr. David Jhirad,
Energy Program, Bureau for Research and Cevelopment,
U.S. Agency for International Development (4.ID)

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12:00 p.m.

LUNCH

1:15 p.m.

Introduction to Panel Il
Moderator: Mr. Robert A. Reinstein

Panel II: Matching Needs, Resources ang Opportunities --
A problem solving approach

What are the roles of government and the private sector? How can lending institutions assist? Who owns which piece of the problem and how can barriers be overcome?

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