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Service, but it does not in any way imply that there should not be other research facilities in other departments as may be appropriate.

For example, needs of the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads for engineering research facilities should receive attention at the proper time.

A further indication of the need for research was contained in an important report which the American Bar Association, Northwestern University and the National Safety Council jointly presented to this subcommittee in March of 1957.

The basic analysis of services of national traffic safety agencies has just been brought up to date by the Executive Committee of the Council's Traffic Conference meeting in New York, April 3.

I would like to supply the latest copy of the services chart for the subcommittee's records. The chart shows that research is inadequate even for present needs in such important matters as sound uniform laws, accident records, school programs, police traffic supervision, traffic courts, driver license, vehicle inspection, and public education. Research is judged to be inadequate for future needs in the important matters of highway engineering, traffic engineering, and vehicle engineering

I hope that that chart can again be a matter of record with the committee as it was in 1957.

Mr. ROBERTS. Without objection, it will be included. (The chart referred to faces this page.)

Mr. JOHNSON. In considering how some practical examples of research needs could be made most impressive to this subcommittee, it occurred to me that a few comments on research matters in the States represented by the subcommittee members would have particular interest.

Congressman Rhodes, as well as other members of the subcommittee, will recall that the State of Pennsylvania made a pioneering effort to utilize periodic medical examinations as a part of its program for driver improvement and control.

Now the Pennsylvania administration has found it necessary to at least temporarily suspend this program, and one of the underlying weaknesses was found to be the lack of adequate research to support medical standards for driver licensure.

In Congressman O'Brien's State of New York we have an excellent example of the value of an intramural research facility within State government. Dr. William Haddon on the staff of the State health department has conducted many studies and analyses found to be extremely valuable within State government in determining sound public policies; for example, in the important matter involving the drinking driver.

Congressman Rogers is perhaps familiar with the fact that in Florida, the U.S. Public Health Service has been able to make limited resources available for a Saint Petersburg study of accident problems in the older age group. This is an intramural accident prevention research facility, but its development has been greatly handicapped by lack of funds.

Congressman Schenck will be pleased to know that Ohio State University has just released a preliminary report of a very helpful study of the problems of slow-moving vehicles.

This project supported by the Automotive Safety Foundation will very likely produce a new and more effective warning sign to be displayed on slow-moving vehicles.

The Minnesota State Highway Department is using 134 percent Federal highway aid money to conduct studies on accident prevention, and from the State of Minnesota, we have had strong support and cooperation, particularly from A. J. Schwantes, head of the Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Minnesota.

Just a week ago in a meeting of the research committee of the National Safety Council, Dr. Schwantes again expressed his strong feeling that there is need for additional research in agricultural safety. I am confident that he could give Congressman Nelsen and the other members of this subcommittee an excellent appraisal of farm safety needs.

We have initiated a most interesting project in Colorado, a project which Congressman Brotzman and the subcommittee as a whole will, I am sure, want to follow very closely. This is a study of the effertiveness of safety communications. The National Safety Council and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety are sponsoring this study.

We shall finance the preparation of a basic paper by Harold Mendelsohn, Ph. D., professor and director of research, School of Communication Arts, University of Denver.

This paper will be subjected to the critical review of 18 distinguished scholars in the field of communications. At a workshop scheduled for Denver in September, approximately 60 communications specialists will, then, endeavor to lay down guidelines for mass communication research on safety and to outline additional areas which require research and study.

Judging from the rather lengthy list of organizations which are cooperating in this study, there is widespread feeling that the guidelines developed are likely to be valuable in health and other fields extended well beyond the safety interest.

I submit for subcommittee reference a description of this study and call your attention to the fact that this is precisely the type of valuable assessment of knowledge which could be conducted by an intramural research facility and the facility would thereby play an important part in translating research into practical accident prevention measures.

(The material referred to follows:)


(Sponsored by National Safety Council, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety)

September 1962-September 1963


There is an immense amount of safety information being disseminated in the United States. It is the Nation's most publicized cause.

Countless organizations have devoted themselves to this effort, utilizing many, varied, and often contradictory approaches. The total effort is characterized by an almost total absence of any kind of systematized safety communications approach.

The purpose of the study is to develop criteria (guidelines and standards) for safety communications. This task has never been undertaken. The final study report, to be published in book form, “Guidelines and Standards for Safety Communications,” (working title) promises to be a landmark in communications,


1. Steering committee

A study steering committee will be responsible for planning, coordination, and management of the study. It will be composed of representatives of the sponsoring and cooperating organizations. One of the National Safety Council representatives, John Naisbitt, director of public information, will serve as study director and chairman of the steering committee. Staff work will be done by National Safety Council personnel, under the direction of the study director. 2. Research advisory committee

The following public opinion research specialists, among the most outstanding in the country, have agreed to serve on an advisory committee for the safety communications study. All are members of the American Association for Public Opinion Research (as is the study director). Raymond A. Bauer, professor, Harvard Graduate School of Business Adminis

tration. One of the top social psychologists in mass communications in the country. Was head of mass communication studies with the Russian Research Institute at Harvard University. Is director of the Space and Society Division

of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Leo Bogard, vice president and director of research, Bureau of Advertising,

American Newspaper Publishers Association. Formerly director of research, McCann-Erickson, Inc. Author of the standard text on mass communications,

“The Age of Television." Donald Cahalan, executive vice president, Nowland & Co., Inc., Greenwich,

Conn., which is a marketing and communication research agency. Cahalan is a social psychologist who has worked in the field of communication research for 20 years. Recently he authored the paper “Motivational and Educational

Aspects of Drinking-Driving.Ira H. Cisin, director of research, George Washington University. Perhaps this

country's top statistician in research design. Formerly director of Human

Relations and Resources Organization. Melvin A. Goldberg, vice president and director of research, National Association

of Broadcasters. Formerly director of research for Westinghouse Broad

casting and Associate Director of Research for the U.S. Information Agency. Samuel R. Guard, director of research, North Advertising Agency. Formerly

research supervisor, Marplan, Inc., research division of Interpublic (McCann

Erickson). Elihu Katz, professor of sociology, University of Chicago. One of the top theori

ticians in the field of mass communication. He is author (with Paul F. Lazersfeld) of "Personal Influence," one of the landmark studies in mass communica

tions. Joseph T. Klapper, director of social research, Columbia Broadcasting Corp.

Formerly director of communication research in the behavioral research service of General Electric Co. He has served on the faculties of the University of Washington, Stanford, City College of New York and Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He is the author of “The Effects of Mass Communications” (an analysis of research in the effectiveness and limitations of mass media in influencing the opinions, values, and behavior of their audiences), and is pres

ident of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. Dean I. Manheimer, director of research, California State Department of Health.

Formerly director of the Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia Univer

sity. Also: Leonard Kent, vice president and director of research department, Needham,

Louis & Brorby, Inc.
James L. Malfetti, executive officer, safety research and education project at

Teachers College, Columbia University.
Irving S. White, director, Creative Research, Inc.
Harold Mendelsohn. (See footnote below.)

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