The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life
World Health Organization, 2002 - 248 pages
The World Health Report 2002 measures the amount of disease, disability, and health in the world today that can be attributed to some of the most important risks to human health. Even more importantly, it also calculates how much of this present burden could be avoided in the next 10 years.
The World Health Report 2002 represents one of the largest research projects ever undertaken by WHO, in collaboration with experts worldwide. Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, describes this report as a wake up call to the global community.
The report quantifies some of the most important risks to human health and examines a range of methods to reduce them. The ultimate goal is to help governments of all countries to lower major risks to health, and thereby raise the healthy life expectancy of their populations.
The risk factors range from underweight, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene to high blood pressure, raised cholesterol, and obesity.
The report's findings give an intriguing - and alarming - insight into not just the current causes of disease and death and the factors underlying them, but also into human patterns of living and how some may be changing around the world while others remain dangerously unchanged.
Dr Brundtland says: This report helps every country in the world to see what measures it can take to reduce risks and promote healthy life for its own population.
Results 1-5 of 9
2 Causal chains of exposure leading to disease Figure 2 . 3 The importance of
population distributions of exposure Figure 2 . 4 Attributable and avoidable
burdens Figure 2 . 5 Key inputs for assessment of attributable and avoidable
To enhance comparability across risk factors , the basis for the results in Chapter
4 is the theoretical minimum risk distribution , that is exposure levels that would
yield the lowest population risk ( for example , no tobacco use by any members of
The potential impact fraction ( PIF ) is given by the following equation : Ž P ( RR -
1 ) PIF = 2 , - 1 ) + 1 where RR is the relative risk at a given exposure level , P is
the population level or distribution of exposure , and n is the maximum exposure
After some time , the excess risk of a “ previously exposed ” group may reach that
of the “ never exposed ” group , or may only ... between exposure reduction for
other carcinogens and airborne particles and cause - specific disease outcomes .
ETS exposure is primarily dependent on the prevalence of smoking , including
both commer - cial and non - commercial forms of tobacco . In addition , smoking
intensity ( the amount of to - bacco smoked per smoker ) , differences in venti ...