The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life
World Health Organization, 2002 - 248 pages
The World Health Report 2002 measures the amount of disease, disability, and health in the world today that can be attributed to some of the most important risks to human health. Even more importantly, it also calculates how much of this present burden could be avoided in the next 10 years.
The World Health Report 2002 represents one of the largest research projects ever undertaken by WHO, in collaboration with experts worldwide. Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, describes this report as a wake up call to the global community.
The report quantifies some of the most important risks to human health and examines a range of methods to reduce them. The ultimate goal is to help governments of all countries to lower major risks to health, and thereby raise the healthy life expectancy of their populations.
The risk factors range from underweight, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene to high blood pressure, raised cholesterol, and obesity.
The report's findings give an intriguing - and alarming - insight into not just the current causes of disease and death and the factors underlying them, but also into human patterns of living and how some may be changing around the world while others remain dangerously unchanged.
Dr Brundtland says: This report helps every country in the world to see what measures it can take to reduce risks and promote healthy life for its own population.
Results 1-5 of 9
3 Cost - effective interventions 134 FIGURES Figure 2 . 1 Example of
distributional transitions for blood pressure and for tobacco smoking Figure 2 . 2
Causal chains of exposure leading to disease Figure 2 . 3 The importance of
For the analysis of the costs and effects of interventions to reduce risk in Chapter
5 , a related counterfactual is used – based ... Risk factor distributions that are
plausible , feasible and cost - effective will lie somewhere between the current
1 Different types of evidence on intervention costs and effectiveness have been
considered in the analysis detailed in this chapter . Some interventions have
been widely implemented in many settings , and relatively good information on
It is not much value to provide decision - makers with information on the costs
and effectiveness of interventions that are undertaken badly . Accordingly , the
results reported here show what would be achieved if the interventions were ...
the appropriate discount rate to use for costs : the opportunity cost of capital . The
discount rate for benefits is often thought to comprise two parts . One is a “ pure ”
time preference for immediate over postponed consumption . The second ...