The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life
World Health Organization, 2002 - 248 pages
The World Health Report 2002 measures the amount of disease, disability, and health in the world today that can be attributed to some of the most important risks to human health. Even more importantly, it also calculates how much of this present burden could be avoided in the next 10 years.
The World Health Report 2002 represents one of the largest research projects ever undertaken by WHO, in collaboration with experts worldwide. Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, describes this report as a wake up call to the global community.
The report quantifies some of the most important risks to human health and examines a range of methods to reduce them. The ultimate goal is to help governments of all countries to lower major risks to health, and thereby raise the healthy life expectancy of their populations.
The risk factors range from underweight, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene to high blood pressure, raised cholesterol, and obesity.
The report's findings give an intriguing - and alarming - insight into not just the current causes of disease and death and the factors underlying them, but also into human patterns of living and how some may be changing around the world while others remain dangerously unchanged.
Dr Brundtland says: This report helps every country in the world to see what measures it can take to reduce risks and promote healthy life for its own population.
Results 1-5 of 5
INCLUDING PROXIMAL AND DISTAL CAUSES Risks to health do not occur in
isolation . The chain of events leading to an adverse health outcome includes
both proximal and distal causes – proximal factors act directly or almost directly to
There are many trade - offs between assessments of proximal and distal causes .
As one moves further from the direct , proximal causes of disease there can be a
decrease in causal certainty and consistency , often accompanied by increasing
Box 2.5 Multiple causes of disease The impact of a single risk factor on disease
mental " can be taken as all non - genetic causes ) . ther reductions could also
take place if reis often summarized as the proportion of disease The second ...
Smoking causes substantially increased risk of mortality from lung cancer , upper
aerodigestive cancer , several other cancers , heart disease , stroke , chronic
respiratory disease and a range of other medical causes . As a result , in ...
One large population study estimates that 14 % of chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease is attributable to occupational causes . In total , the attributable mortality
for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was 243 000 ( 0.4 % ) deaths and the ...