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How States would fare under Murray-Metcalf school support" bill (8.2 and

H.R. 22) during 4th year of operation

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47,093, 000 14, 882, 000 13, 614,000

19, 803,000
54, 104, 000
6, 625, 000

89, 406, 000

15, 367,000 17, 787, 000 14, 035, 000 33, 899,000 38, 632,000 4,009,000

3,683, 000 54, 218, 000 3,333, 000

15, 265, 000
42, 409, 000

District of Columbia
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota..
Rhode Island.
South Carolina..
South Dakota.
West Virginia

$90, 100, 000

7,100,000 38, 000, 000 44, 200, 000 410, 500,000 50, 700,000 60,000,000 13, 200, 000 17, 800,000 128, 800,000 113, 600,000

19,000,000 257, 100, 000 129, 600,000 73,000,000 58, 300,000 83, 400, 000 96, 700, 000 24, 000, 000 85, 800,000 113, 800,000 233,700,000 93, 800,000 62, 400,000 107, 400,000 20,000,000 38, 400,000

8,800,000 14, 700, 000 148, 700, 000

28, 300,000 392, 200, 000 131, 100, 000

18,300,000 264, 300,000

55, 900, 000 48, 600, 000 275, 100, 000 20, 900,000 75, 300,000 19,600,000 94, 200,000 285, 300,000 28, 500,000

9,500,000 110, 400,000 77, 200,000 51, 100, 000 108, 100, 000

9, 400,000

$44, 741,000

4, 284, 000 24,751, 000 20,943, 000 488, 822,000

45, 217,000 107,093, 000 28, 082, 000 31, 414, 000 108, 997, 000 59, 496, 000 12, 375, 000 346, 506, 000 114, 233, 000 55, 213,000 44, 265, 000 49, 501, 000 58, 068, 000 19, 991, 000 89, 483, 000 168, 018, 000 237, 033, 000 78, 535, 000 19, 991, 000 109, 949.000 14, 279, 000 30, 938,000

9, 995, 000 15, 231, 000 200, 860,000 16, 659,000 651, 127,000 62, 352, 000

9, 044, 000 293, 198, 000 43, 313, 000 43, 313, 000 343, 175, 000 26, 651, 000 28, 558, 000 10, 471, 000 54, 737, 000 203, 715,000 16, 659,000

8,568, 000 79, 011, 000 73, 775, 000 36, 174, 000 99, 002, 000 8,091, 000

2, 549, 000

5,721, 000
7, 462, 000

1, 195,000

631,000 52, 160,000


258, 927,000

68, 748,000
9, 256, 000

28, 899,000

12, 587,000
5, 287,000

68,075,000 5, 754, 000

46, 742, 000

9, 129, 000 39, 463, 000 81, 585, 000 11, 841, 000

932, 000 31, 389,000

3, 425, 000 14, 926, 000 9,098, 000 1,309,000


4,745, 900,000 4,745, 900, 000

722, 640,000

722, 640,000

Source of data: Col. 1, Congressional Record, Jan. 9, 1959. Cols. 2, 3, and 4 compiled by Chamber of Commerce of the United States.


LEGISLATION State chamber of commerce in

Alabama believes education is a State function and Federal aid would lead to Federal control. In the last session of the Alabama Legislature, organization supported legislation which set up an Alabama Education Commission to study State's educational situation. Commission's report, on which some Alabama State Chamber of Commerce members served, recommended $37,300,000 in additional taxes for education. Organization supports: revision of State tax structure to increase revenue for schools; efficient expenditure of school money ; increased local contribution to school costs.

Arkansas supported recent increase in State sales tax from 2 to 3 percent with understanding that additional revenue would be used to increase teachers' salaries.


California in 1952, actively supported constitutional amendment increasing State aid for school districts from $120 to $180 per unit of average daily attendance. In 1957, supported bill to increase aid to $193.37 per unit. In 1949, was one of two major groups supporting initiation of State aid program for construction. Actively supported voted bond measures for grants and loans to school districts as follows: 1949.

$250,000,000 1952

185, 000, 000 1954.

100,000,000 1956_

100, 000, 000 1958_



855, 000, 000 Colorado in 1957, supported the Weinland plan for a minimum foundation pro gram passed by the general assembly which, among other features, provides a 12-mill county levy to be distributed to school districts on the basis of their share of classroom units in the county. Organization is on record as favoring: (1) a need for expansion of base to support schools ; (2) reorganization and elimination of nonoperating and uneconomic school districts. Oppose Federal aid to its schools.

Connecticut has traditionally believed that education is a State and local re sponsibility. In 1957, supported 2-year legislation recommended by the State fiscal study commission which provides a formula whereby average per pupil allocations are increased by $21 per child plus extra grants of $9.50 per pupil to communities which experienced exceptional growth of school populations. The bill comes up for renewal in the current general assembly and the Connecticut State Chamber of Commerce is expected to support it again.

Delaware in 1957, supported : Establishment of vocational schools in two out of the three State counties; appropriations providing scholarships at the University of Delaware for prospective teachers; funds for remedial and clinical services; financial aid to needy students at the University of Delaware; funds for educating severely retarded and exceptional children; funds for scholarships at Delaware State College (colored) ; bonding school construction.

Florida has long sponsored educational advancement in the State. Organization was instrumental in forming potent continuing educational council working closely with State department of education for increased budgets totaling $281 million to include almost $31 million in building costs for the next biennium. To meet the needs of an estimated 70,000 new pupils each year, strongly supported minimum foundation program for: increasing teachers' salaries ; purchase of education materials; improved instructional methods; added transportation. Initiated program for teaching conversational Spanish in lower schools which is outstandingly successful in Dade and Hillsborough Counties. Retail division sponsors 4-H Clubs and similar agricultural educational projects.

Georgia sponsored : STAR (student, teacher achievement, recognition) pro gram; encouraged and assists in direction of Georgia volunteer teacher scholarship program. Opposes Federal aid to schools.

Illinois opposes Federal aid to its schools. Recommends : Increased State tax rates; increased State appropriations for schools; consolidation of inefficient school districts. Supports : Construction loan fund to assist districts at the limit of their bonding power and continuation of State scholarship programs. Proposes legislation providing separate State bond issue for State university building construction and for construction of mental hospitals.

Indiana in 1948, underwrote a comprehensive study of school financing problems in the State which developed a minimum school foundation program for State aid to local schools which was adopted by the Indiana Legislature in 1949. In 1958, by appointment from the Governor, participated in study commission to reevaluate the earlier program. In 1959, supported enactment of legislation to carry out recommendations of the commission which led to better equalization of State support for public schools. In 1957 and 1959, supported legislation to improve school reorganization and consolidation laws-enacted in 1959. Supports : Legislation establishing a countywide school tax of which proceeds are to be distributed in the counties on a per pupil basis ; a promotion campaign to encourage teaching as a career; modification of State teacher licensing requirements to emphasize subject matter preparation leading to better trained teachers of physical sciences; increased appropriations for raising salaries of State university and college instructors. Conducts remarkable information program for and about public school system in the State. Publication entitled, “Here is Your Indiana Government," is used by 300 schools and is recommended by State superintendent of public instruction as a supplementary textbook for high school civics classes. Is on record as unalterably opposed to Federal aid for Indiana schools and as favoring local community responsibility for evaluating abilities and fixing compensation of teachers.

Kansas in 1957, supported : Legislation recommending appropriation for a permanent plan for financing State aid to high schools; legislation appropriating money for a comprehensive study and evaluation of the State's educational system. In 1958, supported: Full financing of State aid formulas for elementary and high schools; appropriations for merit increases for State college facilities.

Since 1947, organization has been recognized as a "friend of the schools” insofar as State financial proposals are concerned-has consistently argued that the Kansas public school system is constitutionally and legally a State responsibility.

Missouri supports: Amendment to State constitution increasing bonded debt limitation for local school district construction; amendments to improve Missouri's school foundation program and increase in State taxes to finance it. Recommends: Further school reorganization and improved assessment procedures.

Montana supports: Studies of school curriculums, school methods, the construction of school facilities and school administration to help insure that children shall have the basic education needed under its system of government and that public funds for that purpose shall be wisely and efficiently expended.

New Jersey pledges full support of legislation that will incorporate the educational needs which have been the subject of budgetary recommendations. In 1951, approved $15 million program for expansion of State teachers colleges. In 1954, approved $30 million per year expansion in State aid for school operating expenses. In 1956, approved $136 million per year program of State aid for school construction.

New York since 1951, has consistently supported every appropriation bill for education in the State legislature. Organization is avid proponent of State and local support of education; is pledged to maintenance of New York's high standard of public and private education by encouraging programs leading to mutual understanding of Nation's manpower development responsibilities by the citizens of the local communities.

Ohio has supported measures in the legislature designed to assist local school districts involving liberalization of debt limitations and relaxation of restrictions on adoption of bond issues and operating levies. Advocated requirement that extra appropriations made to schools be used totally for teachers' salaries. Position has been for tying base support for schools to the community where schools' appeal is strongest; thus, avoiding transfer of topheavy financial responsibility to State and Federal Governments where schools would become pawns of politics and politicians.

Pennsylvania is on record for retaining State control and responsibilities for education; favoring increased borrowing capacity and increased millage authority for school construction purposes. Organization also proposes an improved system of real estate assessment and increased millage authority for purpose of helping local school districts meet increased costs. Is endorsing and promoting foundation for independent colleges. Recommends a wide variety of reorganization proposals designed to point the way toward an improved education system to meet pressing demands of the future.

South Carolina is first statewide organization to favor enactment of 1951 3 percent sales tax law, revenue from which is earmarked for schools. Organization actively supported 1951 appropriation bill which established State educational finance commission which administers program of State aid for school construction, school transportation, and reorganization of school districts. Currently promoting: revision of the State constitution and law to permit modernization of school organization and administration at State and local levels; attraction and retention of qualified teachers; adequate staffing of schools and school systems with teaching and nonteaching personnel ; provision for quality education appropriate to the needs and ability of the child ; qualified appraisal of needs, maintenance, and efficient use of school plant facilities ; local initiative in sharing financing of schools with the State.

Texas supported legislation: to establish the foundation school program which was passed in 1951; to establish the Texas Education Board in 1951 ; for television training program for new teachers in 1955; for increased teacher pay in 1952 and 1954; for incentive programs encouraging additional study by teachers; for permanent school funds; for consolidation of school districts in 1951 and 1953; for teacher retirement program in 1949. Appropriations for education in Texas have doubled in the last 10 years. Texas teachers with earned degrees amount to 96 percent of teaching force. Teacher salaries have increased 35 percent in the last 10 years. Pupil-teacher ratio averages 25.8 to 1 for the State.

Virginia is dedicated to advancing opportunities for the improvement of Virginia education. Organization has continually endorsed provision for the required educational facilities in adequately supported public elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and universities. Endorses broadening courses in Virginia high schools to provide industrial, commercial, and agricultural training to buttress classroom instruction.

West Virginia has vigorously advocated increased property tax levies for school purposes; supported 1950 constitutional amendment to increase school bond authority by $79 million; supported 1958 constitutional amendment providing $75 million in additional bonding authority for school construction in 55 county school districts and providing $15 million of additional levy authority for current operating expenses. In 1957 and 1958 organization supported the property reappraisal and revaluation program which is expected to provide new school revenues amounting to $40 million annually.

Wisconsin in 1957, supported increase of State support level for education from 17 to 25 percent. In 1959 organization supported further increase to 27 percent. Advocates: reorganization of school districts for greater efficiencies; increase of accreditation standards for teachers and institution of merit principles for increasing pay of highly qualified instructors. Is committed to oppose Federal financial aid to Wisconsin schools.

Senator McNAMARA. The next witness is Miss Selma Borchardt of the American Federation of Teachers.

Good morning. We are certainly glad to have you here today.



Miss BORCHARDT. Thank you.

Senator McNAMARA. I have your statement here. Do you want us to put your entire statement in the record and let you summarize it?

Miss BORCHARDT. I would be glad to.


SENTATIVE, AMERICAN FEDERATION OF TEACHERS Gentlemen of the committee, the American Federation of Teachers is the largest entirely voluntary organization of classroom teachers in this country. We want to express our appreciation to the members of this committee for having helped keep the question of Federal aid for the schools continually before the public. We have been disappointed from year to year not to have legislation enacted granting Federal aid to the States for elementary and secondary schools. It has been a source of gratification to us to have proof of the devoted and eager concern which a number of members of this committee have had in the question. Many of you have, through the years, introduced bills for general aid, for aid for construction, aid for medical services for children, and for some years Senator Murray sponsored the bill seeking aid for public school teachers' salaries.

For months, for years, in fact, you have heard witnesses testify as to the shortage of classrooms and of professionally qualified teachers throughout the United States. Just a few weeks ago you heard Mr. Peter Schoeman, chairman of the AFL-CIO Committee on Education, emphasize these shortages to you. He told you of the over 140,000 classrooms needed now. Not just 65,300 new classrooms to take care of the increased school population which are needed, but of the additional 75,200 more classrooms needed to replace unsanitary fire risks in all parts of the country where children are sent to school today.

You know also of the almost 100,000 unqualified teachers in our schools today. Nor does this figure give the full picture of the teacher shortage. In some States certificates are issued to unqualified personnel—and then these teachers are no longer listed as uncertified. In no State today has the number of qualified teachers entering tbe profession been equal to the number of employed teachers who are leaving the profession, either to enter other fields of work or to seek early retirement from the profession. The rate of turnover in the teaching profession gives good cause for nationwide alarm.

Some witnesses who have come before you have emphasized the fact that there has been a marked improvement in educational conditions throughout the country. This is fortunately true. Some have pointed out to you that the States and local communities have, through their own efforts, improved conditions, and this is also true. We are indeed happy that conditions have actually improved. However, we are deeply concerned over the lack of a planned continuing improvement so sorely needed today. We deplore the failure of the Congress to act to help the States meet the critical needs of today now. The questions, as we see them, before you now are not whether there is a need for money in order to meet the classroom shortage and recruit the thousands of qualified teachers needed today. I do not think there is a person in this room who would question that need. The issue is: How can this need best be met-we believe through direct Federal grants.

We are asking you to recognize the fact that the only equitable way to meet the school needs which as so pressing today is throug a program of direct Federal aid to the States and their subdivisons. We are mindful of the vari. ous proposals before the Congress for aiding the States. We support the Mur. ray bill, S. 2, now before this committee.

The great mass support from all parts of the Nation for Federal aid for education has been growing for many years. Records show that in the 1920's and 1930's the American Federation of Teachers supported a general overall aid bill. So did many other organizations. However, in 1945, it became apparent to all persons working for Federal aid for education at that time that a general overall aid bill could not possibly be enacted. It was then that the American Federation of Teachers proposed that separate bills, each covering a field in which an acute shortage then existed, be introduced, each to be separately but simultaneously considered with all. We then proposed legislation granting Federal aid for teachers' salaries; Federal aid for public school construction; Federal aid for health services for all children; Federal aid for loans and scholarships for advanced study, and finally, Federal aid to help eradicate adult illiteracy. Bills on each of these points were introduced by some of the finest men who have served in our Congress.

Last year, there were groups which felt that Federal aid for school construction and Federal aid for teachers' salaries should be combined because the two were so closely related. There is no question but that we must have qualified teachers if our children are to grow up, equipped to function in a free democratic society. Enough qualified teachers! Enough classrooms with enough qualified teachers! The shortage of teachers and of classrooms produces a pupil-teacher ratio load so heavy that teachers are required to try to teach in mass production style.

It is axiomatic that only qualified teachers are able today to give the type of instruction which must be given children today. And even the best qualified teachers cannot teach in overpopulated classes. So we need not only qualified teachers, but enough qualified teachers. As you have been told by a number of the witnesses, schools simply cannot get qualified teachers unless the teachers are paid a more nearly adequate salary. Furthermore, the schools cannot hold professionally qualified personnel if the general conditions within the schools, including salaries, are not made worthy of the demands placed on the teachers in the schools.

We agree with those witnesses who point to the fact that the classroom shortage has been reduced materially. But from these facts we draw different conclusions. A little improvement is better than none. But we hold that so long as there are thousands of classrooms needed and thousands of teachers needed to man the classrooms, the shortage is still an alarming factor. Conditions will not be materially improved until there is enough money to pay teachers a more nearly adequate salary. Last year's average salary for teachers was $4,520 ; the median salary for beginners was $3,600. Obviously neither the average nor the median reveals how low salaries for teachers really are in some States.

It is idle to say that the States should raise the pay level. As the members of this committee know, far better than any witness that has appeared before you, the States that are forced to keep teachers' salaries at their present low level are the States least able, in terms of potential financial resources, to raise these

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