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Dr. Hutchinson quoted the pledge of the first temperance Society in New England, formed less than a century ago, and referred to the standards that obtained at that time. The pledge ran: "We, the undersigned, believing in the evil effect of strong drink, do hereby pledge ourselves on our sacred honor that we will not get drunk more than four times a year, Muster Day, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving and Christmas."

"That was the beginning of the first temperance society," said Dr. Hutchinson, "and a community which could stand such potations and saturations is not going to be seriously damaged by the drinking that is going on at the present date. I believe that, instead of producing defectiveness, alcohol (and disease) merely pick it out and we should regard the drunkard as emphatically not to be trusted to reproduce the race. Also I believe that our laws as regards the divorcing of such individuals should be made practically self-acting, instead of encouraging good women to marry men of this description in the hope of reforming them by their Christian principles and their good example; that, I think is distinctly immoral, I care not who has upheld such a position.

"We can pile up perfectly enormous and appalling figures, running up into the hundreds of thousands, of the different types of defectives, but taken altogether, they do not come to more than 4% or 5% of the total community. 95% of the community are born normal and sound, and the vast majority of us, no matter what strains we should be subjected to, are hopelessly and monotonously sane, not even cranky enough to be interesting. The general average of the race is high and good, and the real field of eugenics, in my judgment, is the recognition of this fact, first of all.

"We must alter our attitude to the great mass of the people. We have actually taken, in our inspired intelligence, that 2% or 3% of defectives as the creatures which all men would become, if they were not held down by the strong hand of the law, or upheld by the support of religion. We have pictured 2% or 3% of defectives as the basal type of the entire community, and have allowed that to color our laws, our prison regulation and our methods of what we are pleased to term justice, until we have produced a code which, for savagery, stupidity, and ineffectiveness to 97% of the community, was never needed for a moment, except by the 3% of unfortunates at the lower end of the scale.

"We should recognize that the tendency of 95% of humanity

is upward and forward, and that the vast majority of men would be law-abiding if there were no laws. That the place where our geniuses and our great men and desirable individuals are bred and born, is in that 75% to 85% of the race, which is the backbone and seed-bed of every people, and that the main thing needed in eugenics is to preserve and conserve the virtues of the heredity of 90% of us.

"I believe that we shall come to feel more and more that the man who is to be chiefly regarded is the average man and not the exceptional man, neither the exceptionally and unnecessarily good nor the exceptionally bad. That the people to whom we should direct our attention and for whose welfare we should work, are, in Lincoln's phrase, 'the great, plain people whom God Almighty must have loved, because he made so many of them."



IDER continues to be the most important, as well as the cheapest thirst-alleviative in prohibition territory. It has twice as much alcohol as beer and often as much as French claret. There are other varities of greater potency-and all reconcile the farmer to statutory drought. Cider is a great stand-by in Maine and Kansas, and attempts to suppress the sale and use of it in these States are not seriously regarded by the consumers thereof.

In the Kansas State Bulletin, February, 1913, Prof. H. Louis Jackson, analyst to the State Board of Health, makes the following report:

The frequency with which the food inspectors find so-called cider selling in Kansas, coupled with the facts that the products are almost never true cider and that they usually contain a high per cent. of alcohol, has led to the belief that they were merely a convenient vehicle for the sale of intoxicating beverages in a prohibition State.

How these products compare with beer and wine is seen from the following facts: In seventy-six samples of American malt liquors the average alcoholic content was 5.61, and the highest 7.8.5 Of fifteen other samples the highest alcoholic content in beer was 7.07, and the average 4.45; the highest in ale was 5.37, and the average was 4.49.

Analyses of German, French, Austrian, Russian, Italian and Spanish wines given by König show the lowest alcoholic content to be 5.94, and the highest 15.77, while out of sixteen samples nine, or over half of the samples, were below 10.3 per cent. of alcohol by volume.

Of the 31 products listed below of those containing alcohol there are:

1, 2 per cent.
4, 6 per cent. alcohol....eight

8, 10 per cent. alcohol..three

2, 4 per cent. alcohol....two 6, 8 per cent. alcohol.. fifteen 10, 12 per cent. alcohol....two

Therefore, over 74 per cent. of them contain from 4 to 8 per cent. of alcohol, or as much as strong beer and ale, while five run from 8 to 12 per cent., which is as high as many foreign wines.

The Bulletin of the North Dakota Pure Food Department has this to say on "alcoholic ciders:"

"Fresh ciders contain little of alcohol. Hard ciders may contain from three to six per cent., occasionally somewhat more, possibly as high as eight per cent. of alcohol. Artificial ciders contain naturally no alcohol, excepting alcohol be added in some form or some material to produce alcohol in the preparation of the


"These artificial ciders are registered for sale in the State, therefore complying with the Registration Law, made from apple base, and contain from eight to nearly twelve per cent., running about eleven per cent. as a rule, in alcoholic content. Now analyses show that this alcohol was never derived as a normal constituent from the apple base. Either the alcohol has been added directly to the product in its preparation, or a product readily forming alcohol has been used. Cider containing from ten to twelve per cent. alcohol is an unfit article of beverage to be used in any community. It is not the natural and genuine product. It is as much an intoxicating beverage as any of the other spirituous drinks upon the market.”

In his fifth annual report, Dr. J. S. Abbott, Food and Drug Commissioner of Texas, touches on the question of the sale of fortified cider. Dr. Abbott says:

"Analyses of the common brand of cider upon the Texas market have been made. These modern ciders are made of the juice of the apple fortified with cane sugar or glucose and then fermented. If there were any logic in the English language, such a compound would be called 'apple wine,' just as grape juice fortified with sugar and fermented is 'wine,' or 'grape wine.'

"These apple wines are sold right along in prohibition territory, notwithstanding they contain from 8 to 10 per cent. of alcohol, about the same that ordinary wine contains, and there is no fuss made about it. But it seems that a farmer cannot grow grapes in the sandy land and sell the wine he makes from these grapes. He can grow apples, however, and make and sell all the apple wine he pleases, because perchance it is called 'cider, fortified with sugar' —and even get by the Internal Revenue Officers."

The Indiana State Bulletin reports:

During the month of January, last, 100 of the 165 sample of food analyzed were passed as legal. Of the 60 ciders examined, 34 were illegal, in most instances being so classed because of the presence of benzoate of soda added as a preservative. This practice

is in direct violation of the law and cases have been filed against the manufacturers of the cider, nearly all of which was distributed by one dealer. A carload of cider, containing 100 barrels, shipped to Evansville, was seized under the Federal Food Law, and is now in the custody of the United States Marshal awaiting disposition. This cider contained benzoate of soda, although the packages were unmarked.

The Council of Milford, Del., has passed an ordinance forbidding the sale of sweet country cider. This is the last word in local option. The place has been "dry" since 1905. A similar ordinance is in force at Georgetown, Del., likewise "dry." When a number of farmers brought to Milford cider just made from fall apples they were warned not to sell it under the penalty of being fined $25. The inhibition also includes vinegar for housewives. The farmers of lower Delaware have banded together and declare they will test the law.

Gov. Haines of Maine, in his inaugural address called for a strict enforcement of the prohibition law, declaring that the popular vote of last year, which decided by a small majority to keep prohibition in the State Constitution, had settled the question. The Boston Herald, commenting on the Governor's address, says:

"The hypocrisy with which the liquor problem is handled in Maine is shown clearly in the exemptions in favor of cider. The farmers have their cider without interference or formality of any license system, and nobody denies that hard cider has been the cause of many crimes against life and property in the rural sections. Yet it is the country vote-the vote of the men who make cider and drink it and treat their neighbors on it-that forces the city laborer to break the law to get a mug of less harmful beer. And thousands of city people who vote for prohibition patronize the express companies that do a rushing business under the present conditions. The hypocrisy thus engendered has permeated every branch of the political and official life of Maine, whatever party is in power."

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