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IMPROVEMENT OF TENNESSEE RIVER BETWEEN CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE, AND FOOT OF BEE TREE SHOALS, ALABAMA.
Officers in charge, Lieut. Col. J. W. Barlow, Corps of Engineers, to March 18, 1891, with Lieut. Geo. W. Goethals, Corps of Engineers, under his immédiate orders; and Lieut. Geo. W. Goethals, Corps of Engineers, since that date; Division Engineer, Col. C. B. Comstock, Corps of Engineers, since April 3, 1891.
1. Tennessee River between Chattanooga, Tennessee, and foot of Bee Tree Shoals, Alabama.-The original condition of the river from Chat. tanooga to Brown's Ferry, when examined in 1867 and subsequently, was found to be obstructed by rock reefs, bars, bowlders, and projecting rocky points, permitting navigation from 6 to 9 months in the year. From Brown's Ferry to Florence it was not navigable except at unusually high water stages because of the Muscle Shoals obstructions. From Florence to Riverton, Colbert and Bee Tree Shoals limited navgation to about 6 months in the year.
The present project consists in:
(a) Removing obstructions by blasting and dredging in "The Suck" and at Bridgeport and Guntersville, Ala.
(b) Building a canal 14.5 miles long, 70 to 120 feet wide, and 6 feet deep around the Big Muscle Shoals, having 9 locks, each 60 by 300 feet, and an aqueduct over Shoal Creek 900 feet long and 60 feet wide; constructing a canal 1.5 miles long with 2 locks around Elk River Shoals. (c) Blasting a channel through bed rock and building wing dams at Little Muscle Shoals; as modified in 1890, the project contemplates the building of a canal along the south bank, 3 miles long, with 2 locks.
(d) Constructing a canal 7.8 miles long, 150 feet wide and 7 feet deep, around Colbert and Bee Tree Shoals, with a combined lock at lower end and guard lock at the head; size of locks, 80 by 350 feet.
The total amount expended to June 30, 1890, including outstanding liabilities, was $3,180,876.99, and has resulted in the improvement of the river as follows:
Navigation was made easier through the "Suck" and "Pan" by removal of bowlders, detached rock, overhanging trees, and projecting rocky points. At Elk River Shoals and Big Muscle Shoals the locks, gates, valves, and machinery for properly operating them were com pleted, the aqueduct and permanent stone dams finished, the canal trunk nearly in condition to permit its use for navigation. At Little Muscle Shoals the channel was excavated and the wing dams built as originally projected. At Colbert and Bee Tree Shoals an increased depth was obtained by channel excavation and building stone dams to contract water-way.
The amount expended during the fiscal year, including outstanding liabilities, was $176,662.35, for which the following work was done: At the "Suck."-A survey party was organized, the necessary instruments and outfit purchased, and the field work begun.
At Elk River Shoals.-The construction of a drift sluice in the longitudinal dam above Lock A, to be operated by the Parker automatic gate, was begun and is well under way; a portion of the dam was raised to the level of the lock walls. At Lock A the hydraulic machinery was slightly modified, the filling behind both walls completed, and an office built. Below Lock B the channel was deepened and straightened by dredging and removing bowlders from Gilchrist Chute and Nance's Reef. Land was purchased at both locks as sites for lock-keepers' houses. At Big Muscle Shoals.-The dam across Second Creek was extended
30 feet and another span added to the bridge. Trussed fenders were built on both sides of the aqueduct along its entire length. The canal below Lock 7 was widened 30 feet by blasting off a projecting bluff; the stone thus obtained was used to strengthen and tighten the embankment between Locks 7 and 8. The timber revetment at Lock 8 was completed. The cast-iron miter gears on the shafts of the drop gates were replaced by new ones of cast steel. About 9,000 cubic yards of sediment was removed from various levels, reducing them to proper grade. The railway along the towpath was rebuilt for a distance of 9.5 miles, and two new locomotives purchased. Seven thousand three hundred and thirty-six cubic yards of riprap stone was quarried at Lock 4 for paving the inner slope of the canal embankment. Land for lock-keepers' houses was purchased at Locks 3, 4, and 6. The house for assistant engineer at Lock 6 was practically finished, and foundations for three lock-keepers' houses were completed or under way. A contract was made for a Bucyrus dredge for use in the canal.
Having completed the necessary repairs and detailed work required to operate it, the Muscle Shoals Canal was opened to navigation on November 10, 1890.
At Little Muscle Shoals.-Plans and estimates for the radical improvement of this portion of the river were submitted to a Board of Engineer officers in October, 1890, and on their recommendation the project was modified as given above.
At Colbert and Bee Tree Shoals.-The project for the lateral canal, as recommended by a Board of Engineer officers, was approved, and the survey for location of the proposed canal was begun; 4.5 miles of the line were finished, including borings and examinations of rock for lock foundations.
The money statement for this work is consolidated with that for Tennessee River below Bee Tree Shoals, page 279, so as to embrace the entire reach of the river below Chattanooga, as follows:
Tennessee River below Chattanooga.
July 1, 1890, balance unexpended.
Transfer settlements 5712, 5740 and 6023
Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890.
June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year.
$35, 501.30 3.91 475,000.00
510, 505, 21 160, 619.65
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended....
July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts
July 1, 1891, balance available......
(Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project. Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river aud harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
(See Appendix F F 1.)
2, 155, 000, 00
2. Operating and care of Muscle Shoals Canal, Tennessee River.-The canal was opened November 10, 1890, and has since been in regular use. The number of steamboats, barges, and miscellaneous craft, exclusive of Government boats engaged on the work, that passed through from the time of opening to the end of the fiscal year was 52.
The total expenses incurred during the year were $16,792.04. Estimated expenses for 1891-'92, $55,000.
(See Appendix F F 2.)
EXAMINATION FOR IMPROVEMENT, TO COMPLY WITH REQUIREMENTS OF RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.
The required preliminary examination of mouth of Gunter's Creek at Guntersville, Alabama, with the view of ascertaining the practicability and approximate cost of so improving the same as to secure a safe landing above high water mark, was made by the local engineer in charge, LieutenantColonel Barlow, and report thereon submitted. It is the opinion of Lieutenant-Colonel Barlow, based upon the facts and reasons given, that this locality is not worthy of improvement. This opinion being concurred in by me, no further survey was ordered. The report was transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 132, Fiftyfirst Congress, second session. (See also Appendix F F 3.)
IMPROVEMENT OF OHIO, MONONGAHELA, CHEAT, ALLEGHENY, AND MUSKINGUM RIVERS; CONSTRUCTION OF ICE-HARBOR AT MOUTH OF MUSKINGUM RIVER, OHIO.
Officer in charge, Lieut. Col. Wm. E. Merrill, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. Cassius E. Gillette, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders.
1. Ohio River.-The general method followed in improving the navigation of the Ohio River is to secure additional depth at islands and sand bars by the construction of low dams across unused passages, and by building guiding dikes where the river is so wide, and shoal as to make it necessary to confine the current to a smaller cross section. The radical improvement of the river by movable dams has been begun by the construction of one movable dam at Davis Island, 5 miles below Pittsburg, and another is about to be begun near Beaver, 29 miles below Pittsburg. A snag boat and two dredges, all of them having iron hulls and owned by the United States, find constant employment in taking out snags and wrecks, and in dredging away gravel and rock bars that can not otherwise be removed.
The first appropriation for the improvement of the Ohio River was made in 1827, and the total sum thus far appropriated for "Ohio River" is $5,790,000. This total includes the appropriations for the movable dams at Davis Island and Beaver, but it does not include the appropriations for "Falls of the Ohio." In addition to these direct appropriations, a portion of several combined appropriations for the Missis sippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Arkansas rivers, aggregating $1,997,040.68, was expended on the Ohio River.
The following is a summary of the work done during the fiscal year. The unusual high water that prevailed throughout the working season was very detrimental to all river work.
Dam between Davis and Neville Islands.-The cut around the lower end of the dam was stopped by a high abutment, and minor repairs were made on the back slope, some of the paving of which had been washed out.
Dike at the trap.-Some minor repairs were made on the lower slope of the dike, and some decayed timbers were renewed.
Dam at Marietta Island.-The break in the dam was closed, and the dam was completed in December. After the spring floods had subsided
it became necessary to repair the lower slope, where some filling had washed out.
Dike at foot of Marietta Island.-A contract has been let for rebuilding the old dike, but work has not yet been begun.
Dam at head of Blennerhassett Island.-A contract has been let for rebuilding the old dam at this place, and part of the island abutment has been completed.
Dike at Eight Mile Island.-This dike is substantially completed, but the small amount of work yet to be done to carry out the contract had to be laid over on account of continued high water.
Dike at Bonanza Bar.-This dike has been completed. Its effect on the channel has been very satisfactory.
Dike at Cullum.-This dike was let last February and the work has been fairly started.
Dike at lower bar at Rising Sun.-This dike was also let last Febru ary, and work on it has just begun.
Dike at Madison.-This dike has been extended to full length, but the stone filling is yet incomplete. No work has been done on the superstructure.
Dike at Flint Island.-The contract for this dike was let in February, and at the close of the fiscal year it extended into the river about onefourth of its intended length.
Dike at Caseyville.-The work is completed as far as now contracted for. At some future date a timber cap should be placed on the existing substructure.
Dike at middle of Grand Chain.-No extension of the dike was possible during the fiscal year on account of continued high water.
Rock bar at mouth of Licking.-The contractor abandoned his contract after making a start. Throughout the remainder of the working season the river remained too high to do anything.
Ice-pier at Kerr Run.-The contract was only let in May and nothing has yet been done.
Ice-pier at Portsmouth.-Three sections of this pier have been completed. The contract for the fourth section was let in May and work has not yet been begun.
Ice pier at Ripley.-The contract for this pier was also let in May and the work of construction has not yet been begun.
Great Miami embankment.—The work of raising the track of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, where it crosses the embankment, has been completed, and a contract has been let for extending the embankment to its junction with the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad.
Embankment at Shawneetown.-The work of strengthening this embankment with earth has been completed, and the next step will be to contract for protecting it with riprap and paving.
July 1, 1890, balance unexpended ....
Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890
$136, 648. 06 300,000.00
436, 649.06 119,590,96
June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year..
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended........
July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities.
July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts...... 169,579.29
178, 820, 15
July 1, 1891, balance available....
138, 236, 95
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1893 $706,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
(See Appendix G G 1.)
2. Operating snag boats on Ohio River.-During 1890 the snag boat E. A. Woodruff worked from September 13 to November 24. The river was too high for satisfactory work, but she removed 204 snags, 3 steamboat wrecks, 11 sunken coal boats and barges, 2 flats, and 1 wharf boat. The total distance traveled was 2,641 miles.
(See Appendix G G 2.)
3. Operating and care of Davis Island Dam, Ohio River.-This dam was built to test the adaptability of the system of movable dams to the peculiar conditions of the Ohio River, and to the special charac ter of the commerce that navigates it. It was intended to be the first step in the radical improvement of the Ohio River, designed to give a minimum depth of 6 feet at all times except when ice was running. Incidentally this dam has been of great value to the city of Pittsburg by securing an ample depth of water in its harbor throughout the lowwater season. It has also been of immense benefit to the coal trade by enabling them to bring loaded boats out of the Monongahela River at any time. The natural harbor room of Pittsburg is very limited, and before the Davis Island Dam was built the great bulk of coal barges were held in the Monongahela. In short rises the amount of coal that could be shipped south was absolutely limited by the number of barges that could be locked through the lowest dam in the Monongahela during the passage of the rise. Under present conditions this limit no longer exists, and all coal can now be shipped for which towboats are available.
The past fiscal year was a remarkably wet one, and the dam was only up 82 days..
A heavy scour that developed below the dam was stopped by piling, sunken boats, and stone.
(See Appendix G G 3.)
4. Movable dam in Ohio River near mouth of Beaver River, Pennsylvania. The first appropriation for this work was made September 19, 1890. During the fiscal year a definite site has been selected for this work, drawings have been prepared, and condemnation proceedings have been instituted to obtain the land required on both sides of the river. Until the site is secured the work of construction can not be begun.
Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890
$250,000.00 1, 381.23
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended .........
Amount (estimated) for completion of existing project.....
650, 000, 00 250, 000.00
(See Appendix G G 4.)
5. Monongahela River, West Virginia and Pennsylvania.-The 7 lower locks and dams on the Monongahela River belong to the Monongahela Navigation Company, and they create slack water from Pittsburg to Dunkard Creek, a distance of 88 miles. Locks and Dams Nos. 8 and