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During the year ending June 30, 1891, the vessels and plant, belonging on the rocky river, and which had been laid up a long time, were repaired and otherwise made more efficient, and the dams at the three rapids next below Fort Benton repaired and extended, and at two of the places ballasted with rock.
On the sandy river, viz, below Carroll, the river becomes more and more unstable going down-stream, and carries more and more sediment, until at Sioux City it is called the "big muddy," the banks in the bottoms cave, numerous shoals exist, and floods and ice gorges occasionally cause cut offs or radical shiftings of the channel. The project was introduced during the last year to remove snags, wrecks, and other obstructions on this part of the river and to temporarily improve the worst crossings. A snag boat and a snagging scow were built and will be ready for service as soon as the June high water subsides. The engineer in charge recommends, in order that the operation of the snagboats may be uninterrupted, that the appropriation for this service be separate and be made continuous, the same as provided for the Upper and Lower Mississippi and Ohio rivers in the river and harbor acts of 1888 and 1890. Fifty thousand dollars annually is estimated for this service.
Examinations have been made for the selection of sites for the two ice-harbors contemplated by the act of September 19, 1890.
Up to June 30, 1890, there had been expended $67,000.64 on a systematic and detailed river survey; the field work of the triangulation between river bluffs was then completed; the primary levels run from Fort Benton to Trover and other field work done from Fort Benton to Coal Banks and Trover Point, Mont., 41 and 232 miles.
During the year ending June 30, 1891, the expenditure for the river survey was $14,533.95 and has resulted in the extension of the topog raphy and hydrography to Wolf Point, and of the primary levels to Poplar, Mont., 352 and 415 miles from Benton, with a duplication of the levels from Trover to Wolf Point; the office work of the triangulation was completed, other field work reduced, and two series of maps projected and partly drawn.
The appropriation asked for is to complete the river survey, for limited work on the rocky river, for removal of snags, wrecks, etc., on the sandy river, and for reclaiming the steamboat landings at Pierre and Yankton, S. Dak.
Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890..
$300,000.00 32, 103.89
(Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1893 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
(See Appendix D D 1.)
300, 000, 00 300, 000, 00
2. Yellowstone River, Montana and North Dakota.-In charge of Maj. W. A. Jones, Corps of Engineers, to November 19, 1890. The project consists in rock removal and building closing-dams and wing-dams for
*Exclusive of expenditures from balances in hands of Missouri River Commission.
confining the water to one channel, from Glendive, Mont., to the mouth of the river. The amount expended thereon to June 30, 1890, is $106,823.55.
The channel was originally obstructed by rocks, and also, and now in part, by swift rapids, sharp turns, and insufficient depths at bars. For reasons given in Appendix X 2 of the Report for 1887, the project is suspended in order that the whole might be reported to Congress.
There was formerly a brisk river traffic, but now there are no boats on the river.
July 1, 1890, balance unexpended
June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year...
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.
July 1, 1891, balance available.....
$11, 926. 45 160,25
11,766. 20 .71
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project........ 106, 000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
(See Appendix D D 2.)
EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS FOR IMPROVEMENT, TO COMPLY WITH REQUIREMENTS OF RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.
The required preliminary examination of Tongue River, Montana, with a view of determining the practicability and approximate cost of straightening the channel of said river, immediately west of Miles City and north of the Northern Pacific Railroad track, was made by the local engineer in charge, Captain Powell, and report thereon submitted through Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Northwest Division. It is the opinion of Captain Powell, and of the Division Engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that this locality is not worthy of improvement. This opinion being concurred in by me, no further survey was ordered. The report was transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 118, Fifty-first Congress, second session. (See also Appendix D D 3.)
The required preliminary examination of Yellowstone River, Montana, from its mouth to the mouth of Tongue River, was made by the local engi neer in charge, Captain Powell, and report thereon submitted through Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Northwest Division. It is the opinion of Captain Powell, based upon the facts and reasons given, that Yellowstone River is worthy of improvement below, but not above, Glendive; but Colonel Poe considers that the present and prospective commerce is insufficient to justify the improvement of any portion of Yellowstone River by the general Government. The views of Colonel Poe being concurred in by me, no further survey was ordered. (See Appendix D D 4.)
The required preliminary examination of Missouri River between Sioux City and Fort Benton, was made by the local engineer in charge, Captain Powell, and report thereon submitted through Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Northwest Division. This report includes also the required report on Missouri River, Nebraska and South Dakota, from the mouth of the Big Sioux River to the north line of the State of South Dakota. It is the opinion of Captain Powell, and of the Division
Engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that Missouri River between Sioux City and Fort Benton is worthy of improvement. This opinion being concurred in by me, Captain Powell was charged with the survey of these sections of the river and has submitted reports thereon. The following plan and estimate for improvement between Sioux City and Fort Benton are submitted:
Completion of necessary work on rocky river below Judith, Mont....
If bank protection at Pierre is undertaken, $25,000 additional will be required.
Annual appropriations of $55,000 will be required, as follows: Operation of snag-boats and temporary improvement at the worst bars on the sandy and muddy river...
Maintenance of ice harbor at Rock Haven..
(See Appendix D D 5.)
The required preliminary examination of Missouri River, Montana, between Great Falls and canyon next below Stubbs Ferry, was made by the local engineer in charge, Captain Powell, and report thereon submitted through Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Northwest Division. It is the opinion of Captain Powell, and of the Division Engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that this locality is worthy of improvement, and this opinion was concurred in by me. No new survey of this reach of Missouri River is necessary at this time; but in order to obtain use of the results of surveys hereto. fore made, an allotment was made for preparation of maps, and Captain Powell was directed to submit a final report with plan and estimate for improvement. The report will be submitted when received.
IMPROVEMENT OF TENNESSEE RIVER ABOVE CHATTANOOGA, TENNES SEE, AND BELOW BEE TREE SHOALS, ALABAMA, OF CUMBERLAND RIVER, TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY, AND OF THEIR TRIBUTARIES IN EASTERN TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY.
Officer in charge, Lieut. Col. J. W. Barlow, Corps of Engineers, having under his immediate orders Lieut. George W. Goethals, Corps of Engineers, to March 18, 1891, and Lieut. John Biddle, Corps of Engineers, since April 11, 1891.
1. Tennessee River.-(a) Above Chattanooga, Tennessee (194 miles).Examinations of this section of the river were made in 1830 and 1871, and the principal obstructions were found to be rock-reefs, gravel-bars, and shoals having about 15 inches of water over them at low stages, also snags, etc., brought down by the annual floods.
The original project was to blast a channel through the reefs, reduce the gravel and sand bars, and to deepen the water on the bars by the construction of wing-dams, thus contracting the waterway so as to secure a safe, navigable channel, 3 feet in depth at average low water.
The amount expended to June 30, 1890, including outstanding indebtedness, was $237,252.80, which expenditure has resulted in a lengthened season of navigation for steamboats and a safer channel for the passage of flatboats and rafts.
Of the forty-three obstructions enumerated, channel work has been
carried on to the extent of improving at least twenty-nine of them. Owing to the character of the banks these improvements are practically permanent.
During the fiscal year work was continued at White Creek Shoals by extending the longitudinal dam and building a second spur-dam, making the entire length of dam 1,685 feet, with two spurs of 130 feet and 215 feet long, respectively. The result is that the obstructive bar at this point is satisfactorily removed. The channel at Soddy Shoals and vicinity was cleared of surface obstructions, and in June preparations were in progress for deepening the channel, and that work will be commenced in July.
The survey of the Tennessee River from Chattanooga to the junction of the Holston and French Broad rivers, as provided for by act of September 19, 1890, First Lieut. John Biddle, Corps of Engineers, in charge, was commenced at mouth of French Broad River, 4 miles above Knoxville, and has been continued a distance of 35 miles to Concord, Tenn., which point was reached at the close of the fiscal year.
The snag and tow boat Weitzel, having been rebuilt from the appropriation for improving Cumberland River, has been transferred to that stream, and another vessel, the McPherson, purchased for use on the Upper Tennessee and its tributaries. This steamer has been employed in towing quarter-boats, etc., from Chattanooga to the mouth of the French Broad for the survey party, and barges from winter quarters at Soddy Creek to Bryant Shoals, French Broad River, for the purpose of resuming operations at that obstruction.
Amount expended during the fiscal year, including outstanding indebtedness, was $17,210.77, as follows:
Survey from Chattanooga to junction of Holston and French Broad rivers.
July 1, 1890, balance unexpended
Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890..
4,319. 44 30,000.00
34, 319. 44 14, 800.74
17, 108. 67
(Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project
69,000.00 69, 000. 00
(b) Below Bee Tree Shoals, Alabama (225 miles).--This section of the river is generally navigable during the greater part of the year, though certain obstructions render navigation difficult during the low-water
The principal obstructions are met at Big Bend Shoals, Wolf Island Shoal, Beech Creek Shoals, Duck River Shoals, Johnsonville Bar, and several others of minor importance.
The character of the work required is the removal of loose and solid rock, sand and gravel bars, snags, and overhanging trees, and the improvements desired can be made at moderate expenditure. A careful, detailed examination of these several localities and a general instrumental survey of the river below Bee Tree Shoals should be made whereon to base plans and estimates.
The snag-boat Weitzel was engaged in November and December in removing surface obstructions from Florence to the mouth of river.
The act of September 19, 1890, provided for the preservation of Liv ingston Point, Kentucky, which, with two small islands, forms Paducah Harbor at the mouth of the river. The work of revetting the wearing slopes of the point and a construction of a pile and stone dike was contracted for March 30, 1891, and the work is progressing satisfactorily. Nine hundred and thirty-four cubic yards of stone and 210 cords of brush were used for bank protection, and 358 piles, 55 waling pieces, 62 iron rods, 1,125 cubic yards of stone, and 3033 cords of brush were used in dike construction.
The amount expended during the fiscal year, including outstanding indebtedness not covered by contract, was $1,327.21.
The money statement is included in that for improvement of Tennessee River below Chattanooga, page 287.
(See Appendix E E 1.)
2. Hiawassee River, Tennessee.-This stream enters the Tennessee River about 38 miles above Chattanooga. On examination in 1874 it was found to be obstructed by rock-reefs, gravel-bars, snags, and overhanging trees.
The present project consists in the deepening of the channel by excavation, and the construction of wing-dams so as to secure a navigable channel 40 feet wide and 2 feet deep at average low water, as high up as Savannah Ford—a distance of about 43 miles—and the removal of all snags, bowlders, overhanging trees, and other surface obstructions. The amount expended to June 30, 1890, including outstanding indebtedness, was $34,971.95, and has resulted in clearing and improving the channel of the river to a limited degree, at some thirteen of the principal obstructions. The appropriations have been too small to allow of extended plans for any radical improvement. No work was done nor disbursements made during the fiscal year.
The work of clearing the channel of surface obstructions and repairing the wing-dams will be resumed as soon as practicable.
July 1, 1890, balance unexpended....
Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890..
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
July 1, 1891, balance available
(See Appendix E E 2.)
3. French Broad River, Tennessee. This stream rises on the western slopes of the Blue Ridge in North Carolina, and enters the State of Tennessee at Paint Rock, and after a course of 121 miles in that State joins the Holston about 5 miles above Knoxville, thus forming the Tennessee River.
By examinations made in 1871 and 1875, the river was found to be obstructed by rock reefs, sand and gravel bars, and surface obstructions such as bowlders, snags, and overhanging trees. It was not deemed feasible to improve the river above Lead vale, but from this point to the mouth-a distance of about 90 miles-it is projected to remove all surface obstructions, and by excavation and the use of wing-dams to secure for this distance a channel depth of 24 feet at ordinary low water. Above the mouth of Nolichucky River (Leadvale) to the boundary line of Tennessee and North Carolina, a system of locks and dams is the