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4. Newport Creek, head of Wicomico River, Charles County, Maryland.-Report transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 169, Fifty-first Congress, second session. (See also Appendix J 16.)

5. Smith's Creek, Maryland.-(See Appendix J 17.)

6. Nandua Creek, Virginia.-Report transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 290, Fifty-first Congress, second session. (See also Appendix J 18.)

7. Potomac Creek, Virginia.-Report transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 17, Fifty-first Congress, second session. (See also Appendix J 19.)

8. Upper Machodoc Creek, Virginia.-Report transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 63, Fifty-first Congress, second session. (See also Appendix J 20.)

9. [Great] Wicomico River, Virginia.-(See Appendix J 21.) 10. Crane's Creek, Virginia.-(See Appendix J 22.)

11. Piscataway Creek, Virginia.-Report transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 59, Fifty-first Congress, second session. (See also Appendix J 23.)

The required preliminary examinations of the following localities were made by the local engineer in charge, Lieutenant-Colonel Hains, and reports thereon submitted. It is the opinion of Lieutenant-Colonel Hains, based upon the facts and reasons given, that these localities are worthy of improvement. This opinion being concurred in by me, Lieutenant-Colonel Hains was charged with their survey, the reports on which will be submitted when received.

1. Eastern Branch of the Potomac River, including that portion in District of Columbia.

2. Potomac River, Virginia and Maryland, up to the city of Washington, with the view of removing obstructions and deepening the channel.

EXAMINATION AND SURVEY, TO COMPLY WITH REQUIREMENTS OF ACT APPROVED MARCH 3, 1891.

Lieutenant-Colonel Hains was charged with the examination and survey for a breakwater to form a harbor of safety and refuge in Lynnhaven Bay, near Cape Henry, at the foot of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1891. The reports will be submitted when received.

IMPROVEMENT OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA AND NORTHEASTERN NORTH CAROLINA.

Officer in charge, Capt. G. J. Fiebeger, Corps of Engineers; Division Engineer, Col. Wm. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers.

1. Harbor of Norfolk and its approaches, Virginia.-The project for improvement adopted in 1877 was to deepen and widen the channel at the mouth of the Southern Branch and along the Berkley and Portsmouth Flats, in the harbor proper, and for the approaches to dredge a channel 500 feet wide and 25 feet deep, at ordinary low water, through the bars at the Western Branch and Sewall Point.

The revised project of 1885 is as follows: (1) To secure a channel not less than 25 feet deep and 500 feet wide at ordinary low water, by dredging from the deep water of Hampton Roads to Norfolk and the United States Navy-yard on the Southern Branch, and also to secure a channel in the Eastern Branch at the same stage, not less than 22 feet

deep, with a width at least 300 feet at the Norfolk and Western Railroad Bridge, and gradually increasing to about 700 feet at its mouth, by dredging between said points; and (2) to ultimately dredge the entire area bounded by lines parallel to and 75 feet from the port-warden lines to a depth not less than 25 feet at ordinary low water, from Fort Norfolk to the United States Navy-yard, and not less than 22 feet from the mouth of the Eastern Branch to Campostella Bridge, and to construct a bulkhead at Berkley Flats.

With slight modifications, all operations have been conducted in accordance therewith.

The amount expended to June 30, 1890, was $482,996.10, which resulted in a channel at least 250 feet wide and 25 feet deep from Hampton Roads to Norfolk Harbor; a channel of the same depth and 125 to 500 feet wide in the Southern Branch to the United States Navy-yard, and a channel 22 feet deep and 200 feet wide in the Eastern Branch to the Norfolk and Western Railroad Bridge.

The channel thus dredged was in a good condition August 1, 1889, except at the mouth of the Eastern Branch, where the depth was 20 feet.

To accommodate the great increase in shipping since 1885, the river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, directs that

Fifty thousand dollars shall be expended in improving the approach to the inner harbor and the United States Navy-yard at Norfolk, by increasing anchorage between Lambert's Point and Fort Norfolk.

The total estimated cost of a suitable anchorage is $150,000, and this amount has therefore been added to the original estimates.

Under the appropriation of September 19, 1890, a contract was made March 13, 1891, with the National Dredging Company, of Wilmington, Del., to remove about 1,250,000 cubic yards of material before May 30, 1892. Under this contract 273,022 cubic yards of material had been removed from the bar at Sewall Point on June 30. The channel has been increased in width from 250 to 350 feet, with a depth of 25 feet.

During the fiscal year there was expended $15,719.54, which was applied to payments on contract, office expenses, care of property, etc. July 1, 1890, balance unexpended

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890..

June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.....

July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts...

July 1, 1891, balance available .....

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project......
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

(See Appendix K 1.)

2,003.90 150,000.00

152, 003.90 15, 719.54

136, 284.36 121, 612.00

14, 672.36

457,744.56 191, 000. 00

2. Approach to Norfolk Harbor and the United States (Norfolk) Navyyard between Lambert Point and Fort Norfolk.-The original condition of this channel was good with the exception of the shoal opposite the mouth of Western Branch, over which there was a navigable depth of 19 feet at ordinary low water.

The project of 1878 was to dredge a channel 500 feet wide and 25 feet deep at ordinary low water the entire length of the shoal, 4,800 feet. The revised project of 1886 is: (1) To secure a channel not less than

25 feet deep and 500 feet wide at ordinary low water from Lambert Point to Fort Norfolk by the construction of a dike and by dredging. (2) To ultimately widen this channel to within 75 feet of a straight line drawn from Fort Norfolk to the deep water opposite Lambert Point, 6,800 feet of which is the proposed port-warden line, making the channel at least 700 feet wide.

From July 5, 1884, to June 30, 1890, there was expended on this improvement $167,184.34, which resulted in a channel 700 feet wide and 25 feet deep at ordinary low water, and a channel of the same depth and 600 feet wide from the deep water off Lambert Point to the portwarden line.

During the year ending June 30, 1891, there was expended on this improvement $4,051.16, which was applied to office expenses, surveys, and care of property.

The project of 1886 has been completed with the exception of the dike. The survey of 1889, and examinations made during the month of April, 1890, and May, 1891, indicate that the dike will not be necessary to the maintenance of the channel. No further appropriation will be required for this project at present.

July 1, 1890, balance unexpended..

June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..........

$4,912.73 4,051, 16

861.57

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project........ 108,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

(See Appendix K 2.)

3. Hampton Creek and Bar, Virginia.-An examination and survey of this river was made in 1875 in accordance with the river and harbor act of June 23, 1874.

The channel in the river was at that time 60 feet wide and 8 feet deep at mean low water. Over the bar the depth was only 6 feet.

The plan of improvement adopted was to secure a channel 150 feet wide and 9 feet deep at low water in the creek and over the bar. This improvement was secured June 30, 1880, at a cost of $12,000.

The river and harbor act of August 11, 1888, called for an examination and survey with a view to continuing the improvement.

It was recommended that the channel dredged in 1879-'80 be widened to 200 feet in the creek and from 200 to 300 feet over the bar at a total cost of $10,000.

This amount having been appropriated in the river and harbor act of 1890, a survey was made of the creek and a contract entered into for the necessary dredging.

This work will be completed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892.

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1×90.
June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year..

$10,000.00

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts...

July 1, 1891, balance available..

(See Appendix K 3.)

117. 16

9, 882.84 8,500.00

1,382.84

4. Nansemond River, Virginia.-This river is one of the important tributaries of Hampton Roads, Virginia, and is navigable at high water

for vessels drawing 11 feet as far as the city of Suffolk, 16 miles from its mouth.

Five railroads, two of which terminate at this place, put this city in communication with the South and West, and two lines of steamers run between it and Norfolk and Baltimore.

In 1872, before any improvement was undertaken, the navigable channel of the Nansemond River was 5 feet deep at low water and was much obstructed by wrecks, snags, etc.

Between 1873 and 1878 the Government dredged a channel, wherever necessary, 8 feet deep at low water from Suffolk to Hampton Roads, at a cost of $37,000.

This depth not being sufficient to meet the demands of its growing commerce, in obedience to the requirements of the river and harbor act of August, 1886, an examination and survey of the river was made to determine what other improvement was necessary.

The plan of improvement then proposed and since adopted is to secure a channel not less than 100 feet wide at bottom, 12 feet deep at mean low water, from the head of navigation to the mouth of Western Branch, 5.37 miles, including a turning basin 200 feet square, 300 feet below Suffolk Bridge, by dredging and the construction of spurs and training walls; and a channel of like depth from mouth of Western Branch to deep water at Town Point, 200 feet wide at bottom at its upper end and gradually increasing to at least 400 feet at its lower end, etc., the total estimated cost being in round numbers $152,500.

The amount expended up to close of fiscal year ending June 30, 1890, is $8,574.51. During the fiscal year there has been expended on this work $9.82. This amount was applied to office expenses. Contract has been made for work under appropriation of September 19, 1890, which will be completed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892. July 1, 1890, balance unexpended .....

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890.

$1,425.49 10,000.00

June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year..

July 1, 1891, balance uuexpended ......

11, 425. 49 9.82

July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts...

July 1, 1891, balance available....

11, 415.67 9, 700.00

1,715. 67

132,500.00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project ......
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1893 32,000.00
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

(See Appendix K 4.)

5. Chickahominy River, Virginia.-In charge of Lieut. Col. Peter C. Hains, Corps of Engineers, to October 30, 1890. This river is one of the principal tributaries of the James, and is navigable at high water for vessels drawing 10 feet to Windsor Shades, and for vessels drawing 12 feet to Binn Bar, 23 miles below Windsor Shades. The latter place, which is the head of navigation, is 25 miles from the mouth of the river. Before improvement the channel from Windsor Shades to Binn Bar was obstructed by several shoals, over which the depth was 4 to 5 feet at low water; the entrance to the river was also obstructed by a bar. The existing project of improvement is to dredge a channel from 100 to 150 feet wide and at least 8 feet deep at low water through the shoals near the head of navigation, and a channel 200 feet wide and 14 to 15

feet deep at low water through the bar at the mouth. The rise of the tide is about 3 feet.

Up to June 30, 1890, $21,500 had been expended on this project. The channel through the bar had been completed and that through the shoals given a least depth of 63 feet and a least width of 40 feet.

The improved portion of the river was surveyed in January, 1891, and the dredged channels found in good condition.

A contract has been made for dredging under the appropriation of September 19, 1890; this will be completed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892.

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890...
June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..................

July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts..

July 1, 1891, balance available......

(Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

(See Appendix K 5.)

$2,500.00

90.98

2,409.02

2,000.00

409.02

5,000.00

5,000.00

6. Appomattox River, Virginia.-This is one of the principal tributaries of the James River, into which it empties at City Point, Va.

It is navigable as far as the city of Petersburg, about 11 miles from its mouth.

Before improvement this river had a tortuous channel obstructed by shoals, over which there was about 6 feet of water at high tide.

The plan of improvement adopted in 1870 was to secure a channel 12 feet deep at high tide, with as much width as the river would bear. The amount expended by United States up to June 30, 1890, was $393,309.87, which resulted in maintaining a channel 10 to 12 feet deep in this river since 1874, and permanently securing this depth over most of the shoals.

The method of improvement consists in constructing regulating works, revetments, jetties, dikes, etc., resorting to the dredge to remove occasional shoals formed by freshets.

As this river is subject to annual freshets which bring down and deposit larger quantities of sand than the current in the navigable portion can carry-off, a small annual expenditure for dredging and repair work will be necessary after the regulating works have all been completed.

During the fiscal year there was expended $4,033.07, which was devoted to repairs and dredging shoals to maintain the channel depth of 12 feet. A contract has been made and work begun on dikes, jetties, etc., to be constructed under the appropriation of September 19, 1890. Of this work 18 jetties, aggregating in length about 2,200 feet, were nearly finished on June 30. The entire work will be completed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892.

July 1, 1890, balance unexpended.....

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890..

June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year.....

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended ....

July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts..

July 1, 1891 balance available.......

$453.08 15, 000, 00

15,453.03 4,033. 07

11, 420. 01 4, 221. 45

7,198.56

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