Mega Urban Regions of Southeast Asia
A distinguishing feature of recent urbanization in the ASEAN countries of Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Indonesia is the outward extension of their mega-cities (Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Singapore, and Kuala Lumpur) beyond the metropolitan borders, resulting in the establishment of new towns, industrial estates, and housing projects in previously rural areas. This process has both positive and negative effects. On one side, household incomes and employment opportunities are increasing, but on the other, the growth often causes serious problems in terms of environmental deterioration, conflicting land uses, and inadequate housing and service provisions.
Mega Urban Regions of Southeast Asia is the first comprehensive work on the subject of ASEAN mega-urban regions. The contributors review T.G. McGee's original idea of desakota zones, and offer arguments both for and against this concept, making a significant contribution to our understanding of the true face of ASEAN cities. The book brings together authors from around the world and will be of interest to a wide audience, including demographers, urban planners, geographers, sociologists, economists, civil servants and development consultants.
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On the one hand, household incomes and employment opportunities are on the rise. On the other hand, such urban growth often results in environmental deterioration, conflicting land uses, and inadequate provision of housing and services.
On the positive side, there is evidence that household incomes are increasing. As well, employment opportunities abound, especially for young women. Moreover, an increasing proportion of population, housing, and industry and up to 40 ...
Rice growing was carried out mostly by part-time households, and other agriculture was devoted to industrial crops for which there was a continuing global demand: rubber and, increasingly, tropical food crops, particularly fruit.
These significant changes in the structure of the economy and employment had provided the basis for a substantial increase in household income, which now averaged $6,000 per household at constant 1990 prices. Growth of income had been ...
This labour is often female, and such employment generally leads to an increase in household incomes (Table 1.5).7 Table 1.5 Percentage of women aged 15-34 in non-agricultural occupations 1971 1980 % Increase Jakarta Metro area 18.77 ...