Mega Urban Regions of Southeast Asia
A distinguishing feature of recent urbanization in the ASEAN countries of Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Indonesia is the outward extension of their mega-cities (Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Singapore, and Kuala Lumpur) beyond the metropolitan borders, resulting in the establishment of new towns, industrial estates, and housing projects in previously rural areas. This process has both positive and negative effects. On one side, household incomes and employment opportunities are increasing, but on the other, the growth often causes serious problems in terms of environmental deterioration, conflicting land uses, and inadequate housing and service provisions.
Mega Urban Regions of Southeast Asia is the first comprehensive work on the subject of ASEAN mega-urban regions. The contributors review T.G. McGee's original idea of desakota zones, and offer arguments both for and against this concept, making a significant contribution to our understanding of the true face of ASEAN cities. The book brings together authors from around the world and will be of interest to a wide audience, including demographers, urban planners, geographers, sociologists, economists, civil servants and development consultants.
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As mentioned, the urbanizing regions are responsible for a major proportion of each country's GDP and are the location of much of the direct foreign investment? They are experiencing a decline in agriculture and an increase in ...
and an increase in non-agricultural activity made up of industrial decentralization and direct industrial start-ups as a result of foreign and local investment. These economic patterns vary from country to country.
... capitalism and reliance on export-oriented manufacturing based on foreign investment - discourages development of higher-order functions such as research and development, some business services, locally owned manufacturing, etc.
For the market-oriented economies of Southeast Asia these changes have been fundamentally linked to a pronounced shift of direct foreign investment (DFI) by transnational corporations (TNCs) from primary commodity production and trade ...
ing governments in research and development expenditures} Direct foreign investment (DFI) has become the principal vehicle ... While evidence shows that between 1986 and 1990, TNC investments accounted for 74 per cent of all longterm ...