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representatives of crafts or classes of carrier employees.
Disputes arising out of grievances or interpretation or application of agreements concerning rates of pay, rules, or working conditions in the railroad industry are referable to the National Railroad Adjustment Board. This Board is divided into four divisions and consists of an equal number of representatives of the carriers and of national organizations of employees. In deadlocked cases the National Mediation Board is authorized to appoint a referee to sit with the members of the division for the purpose of making an award.
In the airline industry no national airline adjustment board has been established for settlement of grievances. Over the years the employee organizations and air carriers with established bargaining relationships have agreed to grievance procedures with final jurisdiction resting with a system board of adjustment. The Board is frequently called upon to name a neutral referee to serve on a system board when the parties are deadlocked and cannot agree on such an appointment themselves.
Mediation Disputes The National Mediation Board is charged with mediating disputes between carriers and labor organizations relating to initial contract negotiations or subsequent changes in rates of pay, rules, and working conditions. When the parties fail to reach accord in direct bargaining either party may request the Board's services or the Board may on its own motion invoke its services. Thereafter, negotiations continue until the Board determines that its efforts to mediate have been unsuccessful, at which time it seeks to induce the parties to submit the dispute to arbitration. If either party refuses to arbitrate, the Board issues a notice stating that the parties have failed to resolve their dispute through mediation. This notice commences a 30day cooling-off period after which selfhelp is normally available to either or both parties.
the Board are the interpretation of agreements made under its mediatory auspices; the appointment of neutral referees when requested by the National Railroad Adjustment Board; the
appointment of neutrals to sit on system boards and special boards of adjustment; and finally, the duty of notifying the President when the parties have failed to reach agreement through the Board's mediation efforts and the labor dispute, in the judgment of the Board, threatens substantially to interrupt interstate commerce to a degree such as to deprive any section of the country of essential transportation service. In these cases, the President may, at his discretion, appoint an Emergency Board to investigate and report to him on the dispute. Self-help is barred for 60 days after appointment of the Emergency Board.
Section 9A of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 159a) provides emergency dispute procedures covering publicly funded and operated commuter railroads and their employees. That section attempts to resolve contract disputes between the parties through a series of emergency board procedures with a maximum 8-month status quo period. Section 9A is invoked only after all other procedures under the act have been exhausted.
Sources of Information
Publications Available for public distribution are the following documents: Determinations of the National Mediation Board (14 volumes);
Interpretations Pursuant to Section 5,
Second of the Act (2 volumes); Annual Reports of the National Mediation Board including the Report of the National Railroad Adjustment Board; The Railway Labor Act at Fifty; and The National Mediation Board at Fifty-Its Impact on Railroad and Airline Labor Disputes. Reading Room At the Board's headquarters in Washington, DC, copies
of collective-bargaining agreements between labor and management of various rail and air carriers, as well as copies of the awards and interpretations issued by the several divisions of the National Railroad Adjustment Board, are available for public inspection during office hours.
For further information, contact the Executive Director, National Mediation Board, 1425 K Street NW., Washington, DC 20572. Phone, 202-523-5920.
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
1800 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20550
National Science Board
Senior Science Advisor
Deputy General Counsel
Director, Office of Legislative and Public Affairs
Deputy Director, Office of Legislative and
Group Director, Media and Publications
Controller, Office of Budget and Control
ROLAND W. SCHMITT
PERRY L. ADKISSON, ANNELISE G.
NORDTVEDT, James L. Powell,
JOHN H. MOORE JAMES F. HAYS CHARLES H. HERZ ROBERT M. ANDERSEN RAYMOND E. BYE, JR. ALLEN M. SHINN, JR.
SANDRA D. TOYE
ROBERT E. SCHMITZ
Director, Division of Administrative Services
[For the National Science Foundation statement of organization, see the Federal Registers of Jan. 14, 1987, 52 FR 1540, and Dec. 30, 1987, 52 FR 49216]
The National Science Foundation promotes the progress of science and engineering through the support of research and education programs. Its major emphasis is on high quality, merit-selected research, the search for improved understanding of the fundamental laws of nature upon which our future well-being as a nation depends. Its educational programs are aimed at ensuring increased understanding of science and engineering at all educational levels and an adequate supply of scientists and engineers to meet our country's needs.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) was established by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 (42 U.S.C. 1861-1875), and was given additional authority by the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885-1885d), and title I of the Education for Economic Security Act (20 U.S.C. 3911-3922).
The purposes of the Foundation are: to increase the Nation's base of scientific and engineering knowledge and strengthen its ability to conduct research in all areas of science and engineering; to develop and help implement science and engineering education programs that can better prepare the Nation for meeting the challenges of the future; and to promote international cooperation through science and engineering. In its role as a leading Federal supporter of science and engineering, NSF also has an important role in national policy planning.
The Foundation consists of a National Science Board and a Director. The National Science Board is composed of 24 part-time members and the Director ex officio. Members are appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate for 6-year terms. They are selected because of their distinguished service in science, medicine, engineering, agriculture, education, public affairs, research management, or industry. They are chosen in such a way as to be representative of the scientific and engineering leadership in all areas of the Nation.
The National Science Foundation Act assigns policymaking functions to the National Science Board and the administration of the Foundation to the
Director. The policies of the Board in support of science and engineering and development of scientific and engineering personnel are implemented throughout the various programs of the Foundation. The act also provides for the appointment of a Deputy Director subject to Senate confirmation.
The National Science Foundation initiates and supports fundamental, long-term, merit-selected research in all the scientific and engineering disciplines. This support is made through grants, contracts, and other agreements awarded to universities, university consortia, and nonprofit and other research organizations. Most of this research is directed toward the resolution of scientific and engineering questions concerning fundamental life processes, natural laws and phenomena, fundamental processes influencing the human environment, and the forces affecting people as members of society as well as the behavior of society.
The Foundation supports fundamental research on computing and information processing, provides advanced computing and communications capabilities for use by the U.S. research and education communities, and encourages innovative use of sophisticated computing in science and engineering research.
The Foundation encourages cooperative efforts by universities, industries, and government. It also promotes the application of research and development for better products and services that improve the quality of life,