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Bureau of Personnel, Bureau of Administration, Office of Management Operations, Office of the Comptroller, Office of Medical Services, Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Civil Rights, Family Liaison Office, Curator of the Diplomatic Reception Rooms, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, and Office of Foreign Missions. The Under Secretary for Management's principal concern is the reconciliation of resources, both fiscal and personnel, with policy requirements. Inspector General The Office of the Inspector General of the Department of State and the Foreign Service arranges for, directs, and conducts inspections, investigations, and audits of Department offices and bureaus and its missions and posts overseas. The Office provides an independent and systematic assessment

of how effectively foreign policy is being implemented and how the interests of the United States are being represented overseas, including a review of all activities and operations under the direction, coordination, and supervision of the chiefs of missions overseas. The Office also assesses the efficiency and economy of Department activities and operations and provides the coordination and leadership for inquiries into allegations of fraud, abuse, or other serious problems.

Counselor The Counselor is a principal officer of the Department, serving the Secretary as a special adviser and consultant on major problems of foreign policy. The Counselor conducts special international negotiations and

consultations as directed by the Secretary and provides guidance to the appropriate bureaus with respect to such matters.

Regional Bureaus

Five Assistant Secretaries direct the activities of the geographic bureaus, which are responsible for our foreign affairs activities throughout the world. These are the Bureaus of African Affairs, European and Canadian Affairs, East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Inter-American Affairs, and Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs. The Assistant Secretaries for these bureaus are responsible for advising the Secretary regarding countries within their regional jurisdictions and for guiding the operation of the U.S. diplomatic establishments in the countries in their geographic areas. They also direct, coordinate, and supervise interdepartmental and interagency matters involving these regions. They are assisted in these duties by Deputy Assistant Secretaries and country Office Directors within their bureaus. The Office Directors and their staffs have specific responsibility for working-level management of U.S. relations with respect to their assigned countries. As the Washington focal point for the development of policy recommendations for coordination with other departments

and agencies, and for transmission of guidance to Ambassadors in the field, these Office Directors are charged with assuring that all elements-both in Washington and within our missions abroad-jointly pursue U.S. foreign policy directives.

Each bureau also includes an executive office responsible for management issues including budget design and formulation, financial control, personnel

administration, administrative support of overseas posts, implementation of data processing and other systems requirements, and coordination with other regional executive offices on departmentwide administrative questions.

The regional Assistant Secretaries also serve as Chairmen of Interdepartmental Groups in the National Security Council system. These groups discuss and decide issues that can be settled at the Assistant Secretary level, including those arising out of the implementation of National Security Council decisions. They prepare policy papers for consideration by the Council and contingency papers on potential crisis areas for NSC review.

Functional Areas

Economic and Business Affairs The Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs has overall responsibility for formulating and implementing policy regarding foreign economic matters, including resource and food policy, international energy issues, trade controls,

international finance and development, aviation and maritime affairs.

For further information, call 202-647-2720.

Intelligence and Research The Bureau of Intelligence and Research coordinates programs of intelligence, research, and analysis for the Department and for other Federal agencies, and produces intelligence studies and current intelligence analyses essential to foreign policy determination and execution. In addition, the Bureau, through its Office of Research, maintains liaison with cultural and educational institutions and with other Federal agencies on a wide range of matters relating to Government contractual and private foreign affairs research.

For further information, call the Reports Coordination and Review Staff. Phone, 202-6472404.

International Organization Affairs The Bureau of International Organization Affairs coordinates and develops policy guidance and support for United States participation in the activities of the United Nations, the Specialized Agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and other international organizations.

For further information, call 202-647-6400.

Legal Adviser The Legal Adviser is the principal adviser to the Secretary and, through the Secretary, to the President on all matters of international law arising in the conduct of United States foreign relations. The Legal Adviser also provides general legal advice and services to the Secretary and other officials of the Department on matters with which the Department and overseas posts are concerned.

Public Affairs The Bureau of Public Affairs provides information on foreign policy to the American people. It advises the Secretary on public opinion, plans and carries out public diplomacy activities, and arranges continuing contacts between Department officials and private citizens and groups through conferences, briefings, and speaking and media engagements within the

Department and across the country. The Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs is also the Spokesman of the Department, and the Bureau's Press Office conducts daily press briefings. The Bureau produces and distributes publications, videotapes, and films on U.S. foreign policy; publishes the diplomatic history of the United States, and answers public inquiries and replies to correspondence on foreign policy issues. The Bureau also serves as liaison between the State Department and State and local elected officials.

For further information, call 202-647-6575.
Consular Affairs The Bureau of
Consular Affairs, under the direction of
the Assistant Secretary, is responsible for
the administration and enforcement of
the provisions of the immigration and
nationality laws, insofar as they concern
the Department and the Foreign Service,
for the issuance of passports and visas
and related services, and for the
protection and welfare of American
citizens and interests abroad.
Approximately 5 million passports a year
are issued by the Passport Office of the
Bureau, which has agencies at Boston,
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
York, Philadelphia, San Francisco,
Seattle, Stamford, and at Washington,

For further information, see Sources of
Information, page 430.

Politico-Military Affairs The Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs originates and develops policy guidance and provides general direction within the Department

on issues that affect U.S. security policies, military assistance, nuclear policy, and arms control matters. In addition, the Bureau maintains liaison with the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies on a wide range of political/military affairs.

For further information, call 202-647-5104.

Oceans and International

Environmental and Scientific Affairs The Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs has principal responsibility for the Department's formulation and implementation of U.S. Government policies and proposals for the scientific and technological aspects of our relations with other countries and international organizations. It also has the management responsibility for a broad range of foreign policy issues and significant global problems related to oceans, fisheries, environment, population, nuclear technology, new energy technology, space and other fields of advanced technology, and for cooperative efforts dealing with the application and transfer of technology. The Bureau:

-advises the Secretary where science and technology or the Bureau's functional responsibilities are concerned;

-represents the Department in international negotiations in its area of responsibility;

-provides policy guidance to the U.S. oceanic, environmental, scientific, and technological communities on activities and programs affecting foreign policy issues;

-assures effective coordination of policy responsibilities between the Department and the Agency for International Development in the field of science and technology; and

-directs the Overseas Science and Technology Counselor/Attaché Program. The Bureau develops and directs the carrying out of policy recommendations relative to U.S. participation in international science and technology programs; in bilateral cooperative programs related to its areas of interests; and in the activities of the International

Fisheries Commissions of which the United States is a member.

For further information, call 202-647-3529. Protocol The Office of the Chief of Protocol is the principal adviser for the U.S. Government, the President, the Vice President, and the Secretary of State on matters of diplomatic procedure governed by law or international custom and practice. The Office is responsible for:

-visits of foreign chiefs of state, heads of government, and other high officials to the United States;

-operation of the President's guest house, Blair House;

-delegations representing the President at official ceremonies abroad; -conduct of official ceremonial functions and public events;

-accreditation of approximately

46,000 foreign embassy, consular, and international organization personnel throughout the United States; -determining entitlement to diplomatic or consular immunity; -publication of diplomatic, mission employee, and consular lists;

-resolution of problems arising out of diplomatic or consular immunity such as legal and police matters; and

-approving the opening of consular offices in conjunction with the Office of Foreign Missions.

For further information, call 202-647-2663. Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs The Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs has responsibility for the formulation and development and, in cooperation with other bureaus, the implementation of U.S. policy relating to the observance of human rights throughout the world. The Bureau maintains liaison with nongovernmental organizations active in the human rights field and is principally responsible for the preparation of the annual Department report on human rights practices in countries that are members of the United Nations or receive U.S. economic or military assistance. In addition, the Bureau provides the Department's advice to the

Immigration and Naturalization Service regarding applications for political asylum by foreign nationals.

For further information, call 202-647-5910.

Refugee Programs The Bureau for Refugee Programs is responsible for the operation of U.S. refugee programs overseas, carried out in cooperation with other governments, private and international organizations, and other U.S. Government agencies, including the Agency for International Development (AID), the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) of the Department of Justice, and the Office of Refugee

Resettlement (HHS/ORR) of the Department of Health and Human Services. These programs include relief and repatriation of refugees; and the selection, processing, and training of refugees to be admitted into the United States, in consultation with the Congress and State and local governments. They are carried out through grants to private voluntary agencies and international organizations, including the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, and the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees.

For further information, call 202-663-1520.

Foreign Service

To a great extent the future of our country depends on the relations we have with other countries, and those relations are conducted principally by the United States Foreign Service. As of January 15, 1988, representatives at 141 Embassies, 11 missions, 73 consulates general, 29 consulates, 1 branch office, and 45 consular agencies throughout the world report to the State Department on the multitude of foreign developments that have a bearing on the welfare and security of the American people. These trained representatives provide the President and the Secretary of State with much of the raw material from which foreign policy is made and with the recommendations that help shape it. The Ambassador is the personal representative of the President and reports to the President through the Secretary of State. Ambassadors have full responsibility for implementing the U.S. foreign policy by any and all U.S. Government personnel within their country of assignment, except those under military commands. Their responsibilities include negotiating agreements between the United States and the host country, explaining and disseminating official U.S. policy, and maintaining cordial relations with that country's government and people.

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