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The American Continental Army, now called the United States Army, was established by the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, more than a year before the Declaration of Independence.

The mission of the Department of the Army is to organize, train, and equip active duty and reserve forces for the preservation of peace, security, and the defense of our nation. It serves as part of our national military team, whose members include the Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard. The Army's mission focuses on land operations; its soldiers must be trained with modern arms and equipment and be ready to respond quickly.

The Army also administers programs aimed at protecting the environment, improving waterway navigation, flood and beach erosion control, and water resource development. It supports the National Civil Defense Program, provides military assistance to Federal, State, and local government agencies, including natural disaster relief assistance, and provides emergency medical air transportation services.

The Department of War was established as an executive department at the seat of government by act approved August 7, 1789. The Secretary of War was established as its head, and his powers were those entrusted to him by the President (10 U.S.C. 3012).

The National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401) created the National Military Establishment, and the Department of War was designated the Department of the Army. The title of its Secretary became Secretary of the Army (5 U.S.C. 171).

The National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 578) established the Department of Defense as

1 In certain unified command areas, such as the United States Southern Command and United States

an executive department of the Government and provided that the Department of the Army be a military department within the Department of Defense.

The Army Organization Act (64 Stat. 263) provided the statutory basis for the internal organization of the Army and the Department of the Army. The act consolidated and revised the numerous earlier laws, incorporated various adjustments made necessary by the National Security Act of 1947 and other postwar enactments, and provided for the organization of the Department of the Army in a single comprehensive statute, with certain minor exceptions. In

Atlantic Command, the Army does not have a
separate, single, and distinct component
headquarters or commander.

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general, the act followed the policy of vesting broad organizational powers in the Secretary of the Army, subject to delegation by him, rather than specifying duties of subordinate officers (10 U.S.C. 3012, 3062).

The Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 (10) U.S.C. 111 note) made significant changes within the Department of Defense. The Department was reorganized to strengthen civilian

authority, to improve military advice to

the President, to place clear responsibility on the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands, and to provide a more efficient use of defense

resources.

The Command of the Army is exercised by the President through the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army, who directly represent him; and, under the law and decisions of the Supreme Court, their acts are the President's acts, and their directions and orders are the President's directions and orders.

Office of the Secretary of the Army

Secretary The Secretary of the Army is the head of the Department of the Army. Subject to the direction, authority, and control of the President as Commander in Chief and of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army is responsible for and has the authority to conduct all affairs of the Department of the Army, including its organization, administration, operation, efficiency, and such other activities as may be prescribed by the President or the Secretary of Defense as authorized by law.

As a result of the 1986 DOD Reorganization Act, certain civilian functions, such as comptroller, acquisition, inspector general, auditing and information management, were transferred from the Army Staff to the Office of the Secretary of the Army. Additionally, the Secretary is responsible for civil functions, such as oversight of the Panama Canal Commission and execution of the Panama Canal Treaty; the civil works program of the Corps of Engineers; Arlington and Soldiers' Home National Cemeteries; and such other activities of a civil nature as may be prescribed by higher authority or authorized by law.

Principal Assistants Subject to the
direction and control of the Secretary of
the Army, the Under Secretary of the
Army, Assistant Secretary of the Army
(Civil Works), Assistant Secretary of the
Army (Financial Management), Assistant

Secretary of the Army (Installations and
Logistics), Assistant Secretary of the Army
(Manpower and Reserve Affairs),
Assistant Secretary of the Army
(Research, Development and
Acquisition), General Counsel, the
Administrative Assistant, Director of
Information Systems Command, Control,
Communications and Computers, the
Inspector General, the Auditor General,
Chief of Legislative Liaison, Chief of
Public Affairs, and Director, Office of
Small and Disadvantaged Business
Utilization, Deputy Under Secretary of
the Army, Deputy Under Secretary of the
Army (Operations Research) are
authorized and directed to act for the
Secretary of the Army within their
respective fields of responsibility and as
further directed by the Secretary.

This authority extends not only to actions within the Department of the Army but also to relationships and transactions with the Congress and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations and individuals. These officials are responsible for the exercise of direction and supervision over matters pertaining to the formulation, execution, and review of policies, plans and programs within their respective functional areas, including the establishment of objectives and appraisal of performance. Officers of the Army report to the Under Secretary of the Army, Assistant Secretaries of the Army,

General Counsel, Administrative Assistant, Director of Information Systems Command, Control, Communications and Computers, Inspector General, Auditor General, Chief of Legislative Liaison, Chief of Public Affairs, Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Deputy Under Secretary of the Army, and Deputy Under Secretary of the Army (Operations Research) regarding matters within their respective fields of responsibility.

Army Policy Council The Council is the senior policy advisory council of the Department of the Army. It provides the Secretary of the Army and his principal

Army Staff

The Army Staff, presided over by the Chief of Staff, is the military staff of the Secretary of the Army. The Army Staff renders professional advice and assistance to the Secretary of the Army, the Under Secretary of the Army, the Assistant Secretaries of the Army, and other officials of the Army Secretariat.

It is the duty of the Army Staff to: prepare for employment of the Army and for such recruiting, organizing, supplying, equipping, training, mobilizing, and demobilizing of the Army as will assist the execution of any power, duty, or function of the Secretary or the Chief of Staff; investigate and report upon the efficiency of the Army and its preparation for military operations; act as the agent of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff in coordinating the action of all organizations of the Department of the Army; and perform such other duties not otherwise assigned by law as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Army.

Chief of Staff The Chief of Staff is the principal military adviser to the Secretary of the Army and is charged by him with the planning, development, execution, review, and analysis of the Army programs. The Chief of Staff, under the direction of the Secretary of the Army, supervises the members and organization

civilian and military assistants with a forum for the discussion of Army subjects of significant policy interest and an opportunity for members to consult with other members on matters arising within their specific areas of responsibility.

For further information, call 202-695–7922.

Armed Forces Policy Council The Secretary of the Army serves as a member of the Armed Forces Policy Council, which advises the Secretary of Defense on broad policy matters relating to the Armed Forces.

For further information, call 202-695-0028.

of the Army and performs the duties prescribed for him by the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401) and other laws. He is directly responsible to the Secretary of the Army for the efficiency of the Army, its state of preparation for military operations and plans therefor.

The Chief of Staff serves as the Army member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and as a member of the Army Policy Council and the Armed Forces Policy Council. As a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he is one of the military advisers to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense.

The Army Staff renders professional advice and assistance to the Secretary, the Under Secretary, the Assistant Secretaries of the Army, and other Secretariat officials in providing broad basic policies and plans for the guidance of the Department of the Army. The Army General Staff specifically assists the Secretary in the preparation and issuance of directives to implement plans and policies and in the supervision of the execution and implementation of these directives.

Program Areas

Military Operations and Plans Determination of requirements and priorities for, and the employment of, Army forces strategy formation; strategy application, mid- and long-range and regional; arms control, negotiation and disarmament; national security affairs; joint service matters; net assessment; politico-military affairs; force mobilization and demobilization; force planning, programming structuring, development, analysis and management; operational readiness; overall roles and missions; collective security; individual and unit training; psychological operations; unconventional warfare; counter terrorism; operations security; signal security; military aspects of space and sea; special plans; table of equipment development and approval; electronic warfare; nuclear and chemical matters; civil affairs; military support of civil defense; civil disturbance; domestic actions; audiovisual activities; command and control; and automation and communications programs and activities. Personnel Management of military and civilian personnel for overall integrated support of the Army, including policies and programs for manpower utilization standards, allocation, and

documentation, career development, equal opportunity, leadership, alcohol and drug abuse control, welfare and morale, promotion, retention, and separation; management of the program for law enforcement, correction and crime prevention for military members of the Army; physical security; military compensation, transportation and travel entitlements, the personnel aspects of military construction and housing management; research and development related to training personnel, manpower systems, human factors; management of civilian personnel training; manpower surveys; and safety.

Reserve Components Management of individual and unit readiness and mobilization for Reserve Components, comprised of the Army National Guard and the U.S. Army Reserve. Intelligence Management of Army intelligence and counterintelligence

activities, personnel, equipment, systems, and organizations; Army cryptology, topography, and meteorology; coordination of Army requirements for mapping, charting, and geodesy; and Army industrial security.

Management-Comptrollership Review and analysis of Army programs and major Army commands; management information systems in the financial area, progress and statistical reporting, and reports control; financial management, budgeting, finance and accounting, cost analysis, economic analysis, military pay and allowances, resource management, productivity and value improvement; regulatory policies and programs pertaining to the overall management of the Army; and legislative policies and programs pertaining to appropriation acts affecting the Army.

Research, Development, and Materiel Acquisition Management of Army research, development, development test and evaluation; planning, programming, and budgeting for the acquisition of materiel obtained by the procurement appropriations for the Army; materiel life cycle management from concept phase through acquisition; and research, development, and military standardization aspects of international military cooperative programs. Information Management Automation, communications, audiovisual, records management, publications, and information

management.

Logistics Managment of Department of the Army logistical activities for the movement and maintenance of forces; logistical planning and support of Army and joint service operations; materiel and supply management and maintenance; security assistance; transportation; and Army interservice supply operations. Engineering Management of Army engineering, construction, installations, family housing, real estate, facilities requirements and stationing, and real property maintenance activities; environmental preservation and improvement activities; applicable research and development activities for engineer missions to include

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