Page images

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Research and A description of laboratory, beach "Solar thermal power and solar chemical
development projects scale or other experiments systems", SolarPACES, IEA, 1994
Demonstration projects A description of technology or “Photovoltaics provide electricity to rural

practices tested on a small or communities in the Philippines", Centre for the
limited scale

Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated

Energy Technologies (CADDET), 1995 Product description A catalogue of technical information "The Australian renewable energy industry", and prices for specific products Department of Primary Industries and Energy.

Australia, 1993
Multiple technology A comparative analysis of the "Options for reducing methane emissions

performance, cavironmental internationally, vol. 1: tochnology options,
impacts, and cost of several United States Environmental Protection
technologies or practices

Agency, 1993
Programme report The results of a programme "Implementation programme: reduction of

conducted over a number of years to environmental impact from coal in
develop or introduce a technology Central/Eastern Europe", United Nations

or process in a country or region Development Programme (UNDP), 1995 Case study

A summary of the technical, "Local and regional energy-related
financial, institutional, and other environmental issues”, World Energy Council
aspects associated with deploying a (WEC), 1995
new technology in a country or

Cost-effectiveness A study of the costs of different “Renewable energy tochnologies: a review of

the status and cost of selected tochnologies",

World Bank, 1994 Government policy An integrated report on policies, "Energy management in Africa", African report measures, and technologies Energy Policy Research Network

(AFREPREN), 1992 Bibliography

A description and identification of “Energy conservation in industry", Industrial
reports, date of issue, and

and Technological Information Bank (INTIB).

United Nations Industrial Development

Organization (UNIDO), 1994
Institutional directory A list of organizations working on a International Directory of Energy Efficiency
particular technology

Institutions, World Energy Efficiency
Association (WEEA), 1995



-Three examples are described below in more detail:

(a) The "Inventory of technologies, methods, and practices for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases”, chapter 28 of the IPCC Second Assessment Report provides specific data on 105 mitigation technology options, such as, technical and environmental

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characteristics, cost, implementation requirements, and references. The major objective of this inventory is to provide a data source on energy supply and end-use technologies, as well as on industrial, agricultural and forestry practices. Purthermore, it provides a common format for documenting and exchanging technical, economic and operational data on various technology systems. It does not include adaptation technologies;

(6) The 'Survey of information systems related to cavironmentally sound technologies" prepared by UNEP in April 1995 identified 51 information systems providing information on environmentally sound technologies, many of which are applicable to climate change issues. Expert meetings and a further assessment of user needs will contribute to a OCW version of the survey report in April 1996. A database and catalogue of information systems relating to environmentally sound technology will become available on diskette and/or the Internet in the future;

The IBAJOECD Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE) Directory is intended to facilitate the transfer of greenhouse gas technology, in line with the IPCC list of 105 technologies. It has established and maintains a database of 3,000 sources of expertise on environmentally sound technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction. GREENTIE provides an inquiry service, a printed directory, CD-ROM, and Internet access. Participating Governments pay the costs of operating the service as well as identifying national centres of expertise and submitting this information to the database.

17. The secretariat also found that the transfer of information electronically is expanding mapidly. Many Governments, intergovernmental organizations, corporations, and universities use fax machines, electronic mail (e-mail), and have 'web sites' to transfer data, text, and graphics. For example, the United States Department of Energy has an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 'web site that provides lindos to over 200 national and international 'web sites'. In many cases, these 200 "web sites' lead to additional sites with vaprecedented amounts of information. There are therefore numerous sources of data, but it is difficult to assess the quality of the information. The simple steps taken by the secretariat in this regard are identified later in this report.

18. In preparing this report the secretariat was confronted with several challenges, including:

Accessing information. As stated previously, there are many sources of information on techology and practices. In most cases the challenge is to know where to look aand what to ask for. In a few cases, information was unavailable because it was out of prins or could only be obtained for a fee. Almost all organizations exhibited a willingness to provide information. Many indicated that this would be made easier if the Parties decided to

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(b) Comparing data. The secretariat has not attempted to develop a structure for synthesizing qualitative information, a common format for assessing technologies, or a means of comparing data on specific technologies. Each of these aspects represents a different level of complexity that should reflect the needs of the Parties;

(c) Presenting information. The information collected and synthesized by the secretariat must be presented in a clear and comprehensible manner and meet the needs of all Parties. In so far as this is a new activity, the secretariat has not yet developed a structure or format for presenting information;

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Collecting information from non-governmental institutions. The initial letter from the secretariat requesting information on technology and practices was addressed to Parties and intergovernmental organizations. The secretariat encouraged Parties to identify information from other sources, such as universities, environmental organizations, and private sector laboratories. Although relatively little information was transmitted from non-governmental institutions to the secretariat in response to its initial letter, the secretariat nevertheless routinely receives some information directly from such sources;

Adaptation technologies and practices. Little specific information has been collected on adaptation technologies and practice although the subject is treated broadly in the IPCC Second Assessment Report. This may be due to a lack of awareness in many organizations as to what constitutes an adaptation technology or practice.




19. This initial attempt by the secretariat to inventory information on technologies and know-how conducive to mitigating and adapting to climate change demonstrates that a great deal of information is available from Parties, intergovernmental institutions, and the private sector. As discussed earlier, the current information ranges from data on specific products and vendors to case studies describing the introduction of a new technology in a country.

20. Decision 13/CP.1, wh recalling the provisions of chapter 34 of Agenda 21 and the relevant provisions of the Convention, provides only broad guidance concerning the scope of such technology assessments to be undertaken by the secretariat. In order to offer more focused guidance, the SBSTA may consider several issues.

A. Objectives

21. What should be the objective(s) of future technology assessments? For example, should assessments provide information to assist developing countries in formulating and implementing national programmes to mitigate and adapt to climate change? Should assessments provide information to inform Annex I Parties about technologies that could

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support a process of developing policies and measures? Or should both, and or others, be considered? In this regard, the SBSTA may wish to refer to the note prepared by the secretariat on policies and measures (PCCCIAGBM/1996/2).

B. Us of information

22. How will the information be used and by whom? Table 2 provides examples, as taken in modified form from the 1995 Second Assessment Report of the IPCC Working Group II, chapter 27, of the different levels of decision-making and typical questions that may be addressed. In this regard, it is apparent that the type of information that would be useful in preparing a request for tenders to build a 200 megawatt electricity plant in a specific location would be very different from the information needed to prepare a national communication.

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Lord of dadelou Cronotectoral regional Sectoral


Interministerial Committee What should be the national expenditure for enervy

and agriculture? Minister

Whicha policies and technologies we needed to achieve

national goals?
Deputy Minister Regional What technologies are available to achieve regional ar
Administrator Senior corporate objectives?
Corporate Executive
Senior Corporate

Whica particular projects or facilities will provide the
Brecutive/Municipal Oficial highest return for an investment?
Plant Manager

What motors should be purchased and from which



C. Tyoss of reports

23. Should any particular sectors, as, for example, energy, industry, transport, agriculture, forestry, or waste management, be given priority in future assessments? Should the reports be of a particular type, for example, case studies? Given the request of the COP to the Convention secretariat to prepare documents for consideration at regular intervali (each interval not to exceed a year), should these reports be very broad or should a series of reports that focus on specific topics be developed over the next several years?

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D. Adaptation technologies


This report and the note prepared by the secretariat on transfer of technology (FCCC/SBI/1996/5) contain relatively little information on adaptation technologies. This may be partially due to a lack of understanding over what constitutes an ada ‘ation technology or process and as such is a fundamental problem that may be solved if categories of adaptation technologies and processes could be developed and elaborated upon. The SBSTA may wish to consider whether this aspect of the request to the secretariat under decision 13/CP.1 would initially benefit from consideration by the intergovernmental technical advisory panel, should one be established, or the IPCC. The SBSTA may also wish to refer to the provisional tas identified in FCCC/SBSTA/1996/2.

E. Research and development

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25. Technologies that are in the research and development (R&D) stage represent one
form of "innovative" technology, although other technologies may also fall into this category.
Information on technologies that may emerge from R&D laboratories could be useful for å
number of purposes, for example, in mathematical models that develop national scenarios of
future emissions or to guide international R&D priorities. In some cases, however,
information on technologies in the R&D stage may be difficult to obtain because it is
considered proprietary or simply has not been published in the literature available to the
public. Nevertheless, considerable information could be assembled, and Parties may wish to
consider whether this aspect of the technology assessment should be undertaken by either the
intergovernmental technical advisory panel, should one be established, or the IPCC.


26. There was relatively little time for many Parties and intergovernmental organizations to respond to the request by the secretariat for information on technology. The secretariat believes that many ouer valuable reports and information sources exist and could be made available to the Parties, given additional time. It therefore encourages Parties or intergovernmental organizations to forward existing materials to the secretariat as well as providing new information as it becomes available. (It would be desirable for the secretariat to receive technology information routinely to serve as a basis for future reports.) The secretariat will revise its technology database, improve the presentation, provide a regularly updated compilation of information to the SBSTA, and draw up a long-term work

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