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6. In this context, the secretariat notes that the language in decision 13/CP.1 and the request of the AGBM differ: the former uses the words "environmentally sound and economically viable and the latter uses the words "innovative, efficient, and state-of-the-art". This initial report has been prepared to address both requests.
7. A discussion of the transfer of technology by Annex II Parties may be found in FCCC/1996/SBI/S and a discussion of the guidelines for the preparation of first communications may be found in FCCC/1996/SBSTA/3.
C. Action by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
8. The SBSTA may wish to note the activities of the secretariat and consider the issues raised in this report, particularly the priority for future work. It may also wish to transmit its conclusions to the AGBM.
I. STEPS IN THE PREPARATION OF THE PRESENT REPORT
9. As its first step, the secretariat sent a letter to the 145 Parties to the Convention and 42 relevant United Nations bodies and intergovernmental organizations on 13 November 1995, requesting copies of reports summarizing information on mitigation and adaptation technologies by sectors or categories rather than detailed reports on specific technologies. As a guide, the letters contained a list of mitigation technologies provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Second Assessment Report, chapter 28, “Inventory of technologies, methods, and practices for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases" (FCCC/SBSTA 1996/7/Add.2).
10. Secondly, the secretariat drew upon many activities already under way in relevant United Nations agencies and other bodies. For example, it utilized the "Survey of information systems related to environmentally sound technologies" prepared by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in April 1995. The survey identifies 51 institutions that operate information systems on environmentally sound technologies, many related to climate change issues. Thirty-three of the institutions that were likely to have information on mitigation and adaptation technologies and know-how, as referred to in decision 13/CP.1, were contacted. In addition, the secretariat expanded collaboration with
the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) which has an information system and experience with industrial processes in developing countries. The secretariat also used the Internet to begin searching for additional on-line information sources.
Finally, the secretariat designed a database to organize the information received from contributing Parties, specialized agencies and other bodies of the United Nations system, intergovernmental organizations, and other institutions and organizations. It contains written materials, technical reports, journal articles, books, and reports on conferences and workshops. In addition, information is available on institutions, information centres, databases, and "web sites" which disseminate information on mitigation and adaptation technologies.
12. For illustrative purposes, the contents of the database are reproduced in the addendum to this document (see FCCC/SBSTA/1996/Add.1) and arranged according to the contributing entity, that is, contributing Parties, United Nations Secretariat units and other bodies, specialized agencies and other organizations of the United Nations system, intergovernmental organizations, and other institutions and organizations. The structure comprises the report title, issuing organization, an abstract of the content, intended users, types of technologies considered, access, and price. The database is still in a preliminary stage and can be expanded and adapted to meet specific needs. In the future, records could be sorted by different categories and searches undertaken.
M. GENERAL RESULTS CONCERNING SOURCES OF INFORMATION
13. The secretariat received 31 responses from Parties and intergovernmental organizations to its request for information by 15 Jamuary 1996. In addition, it received seven responses to inquiries made via electronic means. Four Parties acknowledged the letter, but did not provide specific information and are therefore not represented in the database.
14. The information forwarded to the secretariat revealed that a large number of technologies are either currently being developed or are in use. This information is available via:
The Internet was developed to enable researchers to transfer information electronically. Since then it has become a world-wide network through which texts, images and personal messages are exchanged electronically over long distances almost immediately. It is growing rapidly and now has some 40 million users in the world of which about half are in North America. The World Wide Web, one service of the Internet, is a tool to make information publicly available. Organizations, institutions, companies, and individuals establish "home pages” and “web sites” to enable users to access information (some free of charge and others for a foc). In some countries, the high cost to users of being connected to the Internet, insufficient telecommunication infrastructure and other factors, may currently limit access to Internet.
Written materials. Journal articles, technical reports, books, and rewsletters (such as the International Energy Agency/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (IEAJOECD)) study “Energy and environmental technologies to respond to global climate change concerns");
(6) Databases. Information stored in computerized databases, which can be obtained on diskette or accessed on-line. In addition, a hard copy of information contained in the database is often available upon request (for example, The Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE) Directory listing 3000 research institutions and technology suppliers);
Workshops and training courses. Some institutions conduct workshops and training programmes on specific technologies (for example, the training courses on environmental information services conducted by the Environmental Systems Information Centre (ENSIC), Bangkok.).
15. The type of information available on technologies varies considerably. For illustrative purposes, table 1 below gives selected examples of different types of reports. However, in many cases it is difficult to categorize a report since the contents address several subject areas.
TABLE 1. EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF REPORTS
practices tested on a small or communities in the Philippines", Centre for the
Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated
Energy Technologies (CADDET), 1995 Product description A catalogue of technical information "The Australian renewable energy industry", and prices for specific products Department of Primary Industries and Energy.
performance, cavironmental internationally, vol. 1: tochnology options,
conducted over a number of years to environmental impact from coal in
or process in a country or region Development Programme (UNDP), 1995 Case study
A summary of the technical, "Local and regional energy-related
the status and cost of selected tochnologies",
World Bank, 1994 Government policy An integrated report on policies, "Energy management in Africa", African report measures, and technologies Energy Policy Research Network
(AFREPREN), 1992 Bibliography
A description and identification of “Energy conservation in industry", Industrial
and Technological Information Bank (INTIB).
United Nations Industrial Development
Organization (UNIDO), 1994
Institutions, World Energy Efficiency
-Three examples are described below in more detail:
(a) The "Inventory of technologies, methods, and practices for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases”, chapter 28 of the IPCC Second Assessment Report provides specific data on 105 mitigation technology options, such as, technical and environmental
characteristics, cost, implementation requirements, and references. The major objective of this inventory is to provide a data source on energy supply and end-use technologies, as well as on industrial, agricultural and forestry practices. Purthermore, it provides a common format for documenting and exchanging technical, economic and operational data on various technology systems. It does not include adaptation technologies;
(6) The 'Survey of information systems related to cavironmentally sound technologies" prepared by UNEP in April 1995 identified 51 information systems providing information on environmentally sound technologies, many of which are applicable to climate change issues. Expert meetings and a further assessment of user needs will contribute to a OCW version of the survey report in April 1996. A database and catalogue of information systems relating to environmentally sound technology will become available on diskette and/or the Internet in the future;
The IBAJOECD Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE) Directory is intended to facilitate the transfer of greenhouse gas technology, in line with the IPCC list of 105 technologies. It has established and maintains a database of 3,000 sources of expertise on environmentally sound technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction. GREENTIE provides an inquiry service, a printed directory, CD-ROM, and Internet access. Participating Governments pay the costs of operating the service as well as identifying national centres of expertise and submitting this information to the database.
17. The secretariat also found that the transfer of information electronically is expanding mapidly. Many Governments, intergovernmental organizations, corporations, and universities use fax machines, electronic mail (e-mail), and have 'web sites' to transfer data, text, and graphics. For example, the United States Department of Energy has an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 'web site that provides lindos to over 200 national and international 'web sites'. In many cases, these 200 "web sites' lead to additional sites with vaprecedented amounts of information. There are therefore numerous sources of data, but it is difficult to assess the quality of the information. The simple steps taken by the secretariat in this regard are identified later in this report.
18. In preparing this report the secretariat was confronted with several challenges, including:
Accessing information. As stated previously, there are many sources of information on techology and practices. In most cases the challenge is to know where to look aand what to ask for. In a few cases, information was unavailable because it was out of prins or could only be obtained for a fee. Almost all organizations exhibited a willingness to provide information. Many indicated that this would be made easier if the Parties decided to