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structures, adverse effects on sea transport and coastal erosion. Şea water intrusion could also affect water supplies and agriculture in coastal areas. Temperature and precipitation changes would affect soil processes and moisture, including ayailability of nutrients which could adversely affect crop quality and quantity. Carbon dioxide increase may be beneficial for some crop species.
183. Several communications also mentioned expected impacts on and vulnerability of forests, animal and plant species, biological diversity, hydrological balance, energy consumption and hydropower and water supply. The frequent discussions of health focused on, inter alia, the types, distribution and number of pathogens and vectors resulting in possible adverse effects on humans, animals and plants.
184. All Parties but one included some discussion of adaptation measures. Several mentioned the constraints imposed by of uncertainties with regard to the magnitude, timing. and regional distribution of climate change, as well as the potential impacts of those changes. Eight communications reported on research to reduce the uncertainties so that appropriate and targeted adaptation strategies and measures could be developed. In some cases, such research is an integral part of adaptation strategy development. (Information regarding assistance to developing countries in the field of adaptation (Article 4.4) is included in paragraphs 169-170 above. Other activities related to cooperation in preparing for adaptation (Article 4.1(e)) were not explicitly addressed in the communications).
185. Five Parties mentioned adaptation measures other than research that are already being implemented or are being developed, such as: the modification of construction design codes to adapt to new climatic factors; investment in artificial snow-making and diversification of recreational activities in ski resorts; the taking into account of possible sealevel rise and increased weather extremes in coastal zone planning and management, including coastal defence construction, and basin-wide management of water reservoirs.
186. Approximately half of the communications mentioned possible adaptation measures to be considered in the future, including changes in urban structure, flushing of coastal areas with freshwater to prevent salt water intrusion, systematic supply of sand to eroding beaches, rescue of competitively weak species in natural ecosystems through frozen storage of seeds, and implementation of improved farming practices and use of better adapted crop species.
187. Improved forestry and wildlife management and modem support systems were mentioned as measures that, while not directly targeting adaptation to climate change, will facilitate adaptation in the future. Four communications referred to such measures.
B. Research and systematic observation
188. Pursuant to Articles 4.1(g) and 5, all Parties reported on research and systematic observation activities although the depth, coverage and level of detail varied widely.
189. Research in most countries is carried out primarily in government and recognized scientific establishments, including universities and other academic research institutions. There was limited reference to research being carried out by the industrial sector, although this could be implied from the extensive studies being carried out, particularly in the fields of energy production, transformation and use, and transportation.
190. The most common areas of research included the climate system, modelling including global circulation models, greenhouse gases and their effects on the climate system, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases with particular reference to energy production and use, agriculture, forestry and the oceans. There was one mention of climate change detection. (Research into the impacts of climate change is addressed in paragraphs 178-183 above while paragraphs 109-113 describe technology R&D efforts and socio-economic research.)
191. The scope of most research activities is largely national although all countries participate in international research efforts to a greater or lesser extent. These include active participation in the work of the IPCC, and related projects, the International GeosphereBiosphere Programme and the Man and the Biosphere programme and the joint research for the Global Oceans Observation System (GOOS), among many others.
192. Many communications mentioned the importance of atmospheric, terrestrial and oceanic observation and monitoring networks, although in some cases not all three areas. National services participating in systematic observation and monitoring activities, where mentioned, varied from country to country and included meteorological and hydrological services and oceanographic services as well as universities and other research institutions. All countries participated in international observation and monitoring programmes, including the World Weather Watch of WMO, the Global Climate Observing System, the Global Atmosphere Watch and GOOS, among others. Several made specific mention of satellite observations. Most countries mentioned data collection and archiving activities, including involvement with International (World) Data Centres.
193. The sections of the national communications relating to research referred; in a limited number of cases, to cooperation with developing countries to improve endogenous capacities and capabilities to participate in research and systematic observation activities. This cooperation took the form of funding for research, for participation in meetings, and for collaboration among scientists, in addition to some joint research projects.
194. A number of countries mentioned expenditures on research activities but in general these were not compatible between countries and could not be aggregated.
C. Education, training and public awareness
195. Pursuant to commitments under Articles 4.1(i) and 6, the issues of public awareness, information dissemination, education, training and public participation were, in general, well documented. All Parties discussed these topics, and almost all of them reported on this issue under a separate heading or as a specific item, indicating that some priority is attached to this commitment. Most communications provided an extensive account the initiatives undertaken in this area while the others described only a few specific projects to illustrate a general programme. (Public education campaigns designed to limit emissions are also referenced in section V above. Matters related to education and public awareness at the international level (Article 6(b)) are discussed in section VII above.)
196. Initiatives taken to incorporate scientific, policy and practical dimensions of climate change into the education process were reported in the area of formal education, at primary school, secondary school and university levels, in 13 communications. Primary and secondary schools were the main targets, generally through curricula reform and periodic mailings of teaching material to schools. A number of these undertakings, however, referred to general environmental information, of which only a part was related to climate change.
197. Twelve countries reported on training activities undertaken. Frequently mentioned were programmes providing technical training (for the most part on energy efficiency) to architects, caretakers, maintenance personnel and drivers. Accounts of managerial and scientific training were less frequent. Training programmes were usually designed directly for practitioners, although in a few cases, "train the trainer“ programmes were mentioned.
198. The material in the communications relating to public awareness focused on campaigns to provide information on the effects of climate change, to promote the social acceptability of policies to reduce emissions and to encourage voluntary action. The majority of the information campaigns described were aimed at the general public, although a number did focus on specific groups, such as motor vehicle users, households, local authorities or farmers.: Most campaigns were run by Governments, usually under the auspices of environment ministries. In a minority of cases non-governmental organizations, local authorities and utilities were reported to have organized independent campaigns. The themes of the campaigns centred mostly on the promotion of energy-efficient behaviour and the reduction of CO2 emissions. Other areas of focus included the effects of climate change, the promotion of renewable energy resources and the protection of forests. The tools used most often were pamphlets, brochures and newsletters, although many other instruments were
mentioned, such as television and radio broadcasting, advice centres, telephone line services, fairs, seminars and billboard advertisements.
199. With regard to public participation, nearly three quarters of the communications described explicitly the process leading to the formulation of a national strategy or action plan to combat climate change. Most of these mentioned that constituencies other than government ministries and agencies were actively involved. Eleven Parties provided information on the drafting of their national communications. Four Parties specified that a major consultative process had been undertaken to incorporate the opinions of non-governmental organizations, the business community, local authorities and others.
200. Public participation in the form of collaborative action and partnerships between the Government and other groups was described in all the communications, although the extent of public involvement varied considerably from one communication to another. For example, one Party described its entire programme to reduce emissions as grounded in a partnership approach, whereas another reported only a few measures in the national programme illustrating such collaboration. Partnerships were most frequently described in relation to business and industry.
201. Independent initiatives of groups and organizations outside the public sector were reported less frequently than the partnerships discussed in the previous paragraph. Most schemes described were launched by the business community, although local authorities and non-governmental organizations also played an important role.
D. Integrating climate change considerations into policies and the identification and
review of policies and measures leading to greater levels of emissions
202. With regard to commitments under Article 4.1(1), 10 communications made explicit, albeit brief, reference to climate change considerations in the context of social policies (for example, improvements in education and training, research into the socio-economic impact of climate change and health-related issues). Explicit mention of the incorporation of climate change considerations into economic policies was made in only a few communications. In all of the communications, however, many of the policies described to reduce emissions indicated that countries are including such considerations in economic policy-making. All Parties mentioned specifically the introduction of climate change considerations into environmental policies, in the form of climate change components of national environmental plans, climate change strategies and plans, or the setting up of processes and committees to address the issues. Only three Parties mentioned explicitly environmental impact assessment.
203. Under Article 4.2(e)ü), cach Annex I Party is required to "identify and periodically review its own policies and practices which encourage activities that lead to greater levels of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases ... than would otherwise occuro (emphasis hie!" added). In general, explicit reference to this article was not made. Most communications, however, did provide examples and instances of changes in policies and practices (for example, the removal of subsidies, changes in agricultural policy and land use practices and changes in tax structure).
Es. Other issues
204. One communication -- from a Party whose economy is in transition - - noted that Article 4.6 provides for “a certain (degreesof] flexibility when meeting its commitments, in particular with reference to modifying its projections of emissions of greenhouse gases for the year 2000. The communication did not include a request for a certain degree of flexibility; if such a request were made, the GOP would have to consider the matter. No communication sought special consideration under Article 4.10.
205. Article 4.2 addresses joint implementation, while the Guidelines are silent on this issue, leaving the subject open. While recognizing that the required criteria need to be decided upon, seven communications mentioned "joint implementation“, with three of these discussing the subject in some detail, and all but one making a specific linkage to the Convention. The controversy surrounding the issue was acknowledged, with three communications mentioning that action had been taken to clarify some of the concepts. Four communications referred to specific projects or "pilot projects" under way, and three others mentioned that these were being planned. Two countries described initiatives that had already been taken with regard to domestic preparation to engage in joint implementation ventures with foreign countries.
206. The guidelines for the preparation of first communications from Annex I Parties are quite demanding in terms of the amount of information and level of detail requested or encouraged. Parties made significant efforts to follow the guidelines while recognizing that it many cases it will take more time and experience to be able to implement them fully. Nonetheless, the initial technical analysis has revealed some potential problem areas and issues where further precision or clarification of the guidelines might be useful. These relate largely to enhancing the transparency and comparability of information.