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and advancement; and that instructors are not usually given tenure. He further found the student to instructor ratio to be quite low, with the majority of schools assigning 19 or fewer students to an instructor at any given time.

In conclusion, he found that private vocational schools are likely to experience a consistent growth in enrollments and greater general acceptance as an important training resource for persons who do not attend college; and that the realistic and economically sound recognition and usage of the private schools could be a major means for expanding the laudable goal of equal educational opportunity. In 1973, Wellford Wilms, of the Center For Research and Development in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley, published a study entitled "Proprietary Versus Public Vocational Training."

I will endeavor not to duplicate material already developed by Belitsky, but to point out additional factors developed in the Wilms study.

Wilms develops the concept that proprietary and public postsecondary schools are conceptually (and practically) distinct. The proprietary schools are rooted in the marketplace. Public schools ultimately depend on the political process. This essential difference determines how each type of school derives its income,

allocates resources and, most important, provides vocational training

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He says (p. 8):

"Proprietary vocational schools' income is
related to how well their graduates do in the
marketplace. Most proprietary schools are rela-
tively small, and they base personnel hiring,
retention, and promotion largely on performance
of tasks dictated by the market. If their stu-
dents do not get satisfactory jobs, these
schools quickly lose their appeal. In short,
the proprietary vocational school derives its
income through the market mechanism."

In summary, he points out that proprietary schools must meet the needs of their students and prepare them for occupations better than their competitors for any given cost; they must consider signals from output markets to survive; they are characterized by limited objectives and programs; they are "single purpose" organizations, to prepare students for successful employment; they recognize that their own success depends largely on the occupational success of their graduates and therefore they select students with a high probability for successful placement; they are characterized by flexible operations to accommodate the needs of students and employers; year-round operations and frequent class starts are the norm; their operations show evidence of market incentives to provide effective training at low cost; the market encourages them to experiment and evaluate new approaches; and their teachers are hired, retained and promoted on their ability to teach, are not given tenure, and are evaluated frequently by school management and students.

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He then contrasts this situation with that of public institutions which do not depend on their performance in the marketplace, but rather on the political process, and which place less emphasis

on job placement.

In conclusion, he found that public and proprietary schools march to different drummers (the public schools to the political process and the proprietaries to the market) and that (p. 82):

"Proprietary schools need to recruit, train, and
place graduates in jobs successfully to get a
return on their investments. Consequently, their
programs are specific and determined by current
labor market and consumer needs. Governed by the
profit motive, rather than political survival,
the proprietary schools have a built-in incentive
to seek out student markets not served by nearby
competing public schools . .

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But for the limitations of time, many more factors could be developed at length to illustrate the need for and the purposes served by private trade and technical schools.

However, for our present purposes, I believe I have demonstrated the useful purpose served by trade and technical schools and the need for such schools as a part of our educational system.

With this background, I would now like to acquaint this Committee with the accreditation process as carried out by NATTS how it works, what it does and the results accomplished.

At the outset, it should be remembered that the accrediting process is purely voluntary. No school need apply for accreditation.

41-997 O-75-32

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Although the membership of NATTS is composed of accredited schools,

an accredited school need not be a member.

The objective of NATTS, as stated in its Constitution, is

"To promote high educational standards and ethical business practices in the trade and technical field.

To cooperate with local, state and Federal authorities and business, commerce and industry in the maintenance of high standards and sound policies in the field of trade and technical school education.

To develop a national accrediting program

for the trade and technical schools on the basis

of established Federal standards."

Accreditation is intended to be a means of assisting good

private trade and technical schools to become better schools; a means of assuring the public of high quality trade and technical education offered by private schools; and a means of setting standards to which all trade and technical schools can aspire.

The Board of Directors of NATTS has established an Accredit

ing Commission of nine members, five representatives of trade and technical schools and four outstanding persons from outside the private school field. The Accrediting Commission has authority to determine whether or not individual schools meet the standards set Each school is judged in the light of its announced

by NATTS. objectives.

Accreditation carries no intent of standardization of

either objectives or school operation.

To initiate the accrediting process, an applicant school

makes a study of its own operation according to an outline provided to it. Facts and material evidence are assembled into a SelfEvaluation Report, copies of which are provided for study by the Visiting Team and the Accrediting Commission. This is part of the whole evaluation process by which schools are stimulated to continuous improvement. This Report and the accreditation process is expected to induce an institution to reassess its objectives, its resources, its program, procedures and achievements. The preparation of the Self-Evaluation Report requires a detailed and searching examination of the entire operation of the school its objectives, its study program, its course content, and its business practices. After receipt of the Report, the Commission arranges for a

Visiting Team of knowledgeable persons to visit the school personally. The Team normally includes a member familiar with the management, administration and business aspects of private school operation; an educator familiar with trade and technical school instructional methods and educational processes; a subject-matter specialist for each major field offered; and a representative of the Commission.

The Visiting Team verifies data in the Self-Evaluation Report, seeks additional data and in general develops a clear understanding of how well the school meets each of the standards.


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