Page images

- 15



See Jethro K. Lieberman, The Tyranny of the Experts, How Professionals Are Closing the Open Society, Walker and Co., New York, 1970.

2. Address at the September 1966 meeting of the Markle Scholars,

Lake Placid, New York.

3. A more modest recommendation confined to recertification rather than relicensure was made by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education: "In view of the rapid rate of progress of medical and dental knowledge and the associated problem of educational obsolescence of practicing physicians and dentists, the Commission recommends the development of national requirements for periodic reexamination and recertification of physicians and dentists. functions should be carried out by specialty boards and other

[ocr errors]


appropriate [private] bodies...' (Higher Education and the Nation's

Health, Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970, p.76).

4. As reported in Non-Traditional Programs and Opportunities in American Colleges and Universities 1972, Center for Research and Development in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley. Fewer respondents from colleges and still fewer from junior colleges -considered the "Institution's concern about its academic standards"

an obstacle.


December 9, 1973 address to the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Houston, Texas.

6. Stepher L. Mler, Tatible Share Time Higher Educationz Serpents in the Basket of Starr Annies," address at the March 1972 meeting of the Serican Association for higher Rucation, in Chicago


The cartoon is reproduced in John R. Taller, Increasing the Options, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey, 182, P. 4.

8. See, for example, the report of a recent conference at RampTON Institute, Firginia. A major national effort was begun curb abuses in the testing of blacks and other minorities and to find new methods of assessing intelligence....The project takes its cue from the widely reported charges that standardized tests are inherently biased against minority groups....Its emphasis, however, is not necessarily to eliminate existing tests, as some have urged, but to work toward 'positive' alternatives.... "The conference was held against a background of mounting opposition to testing among educators. Some groups, including the National Education Association and the Association of Black

Psychologists, have called for a moratorium on standardized testing" (Robert L. Jacobson, "Curbs on Bias In Testing Set as Goal," The

Chronicle of Higher Education, April 9, 1973 pp. 1,4).

9. The situation in licensure exams for dental hygienists, cometologists, and aircraft mechanics, has been described as follows: "It is not uncommon to find a special course given

during the last year of a dental hygiene program which is designed

to prepare students specifically for the examination."

[blocks in formation]

"The fail rate [in state licensing examinations] among

students who have attended schools of cosmetology tends to be low. The reason for this is suggested by comments made by the head of one such school in New York.... [who] was very proud of the fact that 99.9 percent of his students pass the written test on their first attempt. ....He explained that throughout the year, students are drilled on questions from a review book published by Keystone Press.... [which] contains about 90 percent of the questions that are likely to appear on the examination. 'On the day of the test, we have the students report to the school at 9 a.m. and we drill them on questions that are almost identical to those they will find on the examination when they take it at 3 o'clock.

[ocr errors]

"The F.A.A. [Federal Aviation Administration] licensing requirements exert a powerful influence on the curriculum in the schools which train [aircraft] mechanics. Educators interviewed acknowledged that they teach whatever the certification tests require, regardless of its relevance....schools place heavy emphasis on preparing students to pass the F.A.A. written examinations" (Benjamin Shimberg et al., Occupational Licensing and Public Policy, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey, October 1972, pp. 44, 240-1, 273-4; published as Occupational Licensing: Practices and Policies, Public Affairs Press, Washington, D.C., 1973).

10. "Statement by College Board trustees," in Effects of Coaching

on Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores, College Entrance Examination Board, New York, 1968, p. 8.

- 18


In 1960, the trustees stated that "the Verbal part [of the SAT] seems totally insensitive to drill, while the Mathematical part for some groups may, with effort, þe raised average of 25 points on a 600-point scale" (A Description of the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test, College Entrance Examination Board, New York, 1960, p. 8). In 1968, they stated that "intensive drill for the SAT, either on its verbal or its mathematical part, is at best likely to yield insignificant increases in scores"--i.e., "average increases of less than 10 points on a 600 point scale....We -have said nothing about the tests of achievement in specific school subjects. These have not been studied in the same way as has the aptitude test,...We suspect that the question of coaching for these tests is a matter of choosing a method of teaching the subject" (Effects of Coaching.. ........., pp. 8, 10).

12. Ibid., p. 11.

13. That unwelcome contribution was set forth by Banesh Hoffman: "The placing enormous reliance on machine-graded multiplechoice tests as a measure of ability. But, unhappily, it can be shown that they have grave defects. Our confidence in them can have dangerous consequences not only for education but for the strength and vitality of the nation" ("The Tyranny of MultipleChoice Tests," Harper's, March 1961, pp. 37-44).

14. See Michael T. Rose and Donald A. Peppers, "Air Force Integrity," New York Times, June 20, 1974, p. 39 and "Naval Academy Expels 7 for Cheating," New York Times, July 10, 1974, pp. 1, 14.

15. See stories in the New York Times of June 18, 1974, pp. 1, 18;

June 19, 1974, p. 30; and the editorial "Voluntary Regents'," June 29, 1974, p. 28.

- 19

16. Quoted in Andrew Barnes, "Thumb Print Now Required For Law

Test," Washington Post, October 14, 1973, p. A 2.


A circumspect description of test security measures is given in Robert E. Smith, Chairman, Board of Review, ETS Procedures for Dealing with Impersonation, Copying, and Related Candidate Misconduct in National Testing Programs, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey, January 15, 1973 (6 pp., mimeographed) and The ACT Supervisor's Manual, Instructions for the Administration of the Act Assessment, The American College Testing Program,

Iowa City, 1973.

18. Shimberg, op. cit., p. 44.

19. See Ian C. DeWaal, "Affidavits contend course similarities,"

The Spectrum, State University of New York at Buffalo student paper, October 30, 1972, p. 1.

20. See Morris Keeton, Accrediting Off-Campus Learning: A New Form of Academic Accountability, March 1972 (14 pp., offset) and CAEL, Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning, Condensed version of a proposal submitted to Carnegie Corporation of New York, Educational Testing Service, December 1973 (9 pp., offset).


See Joseph L. Boyd, Jr. and Benjamin Shimberg, Developing Performance Tests for Classroom Evaluation, ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation (14 pp., offset, no date); Roderick A. Ironside and Adele Richardson, The Dimensions and Specific Indicators Used to Define Competence and Quality in Medical Care, September 1973; and material on the National Occupational Competency Testing Institute, all issued by the Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey.

« PreviousContinue »