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7 .458

no. 22

Project Staff The planning and execution of the various phases of this project were carried out principally by the following persons, who were members of the Building Research Division during the period of time over which the work was done.

D. Watstein, T. Reichard, and L. F. Skoda of the Structures Section; R. S. Wyly, R. W. Beausoliel, and C. J. Seay of the Environmental Engineering Section; D. G. Moore, J. C. Richmond, J. W. Pitts, and W. C. Wolfe of the Materials and Composites Section. P. R. Achenbach of the Division Office served as project director and coordinator.

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 71-600906


Results are described from an investigation of performance characteristics for sanitary plumbing fixtures conducted at the National Bureau of Standards at the request of an ad hoc committee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. The committee identified significant performance characteristics, coordinated the investigation, and developed its conclusions in part on the basis of the results of the investigation at NBS.

The findings and recommendations given herein have been prepared by NBS in a form suitable as supplemental information to appear as a chapter within the publication proposed for issue by the NAS-NRC.






3.1. Cleanability and soilability (M203A).

3.2. Surface slip resistance (M207)

3.3. Resistance to thermal shock (T304) -

3.4. Other characteristics requiring test de-


4. References ---

Appendix A: Inspection of FRPE manufacturing

processes, installed fixtures, and test facilities..

Appendix B: Telephone survey of pressed-steel



Investigation of Performance Characteristics

for Sanitary Plumbing Fixtures

Building Research Division
Institute for Applied Technology
National Bureau of Standards

This report gives findings and recommendations developed during an investigation
of performance characteristics for sanitary plumbing fixtures, conducted at the request
of the Building Research Advisory Board of the National Academy of Sciences-National
Research Council. The report describes the test methods that are recommended for the
evaluation of 16 performance characteristics, and the nature of further work required to
complete the development of four or five additional test procedures.

The suitability of various existing test methods for evaluating the functional and
performance characteristics of sanitary plumbing fixtures was investigated in the laboratory.
In addition, new or modified tests for certain characteristics were developed. The laboratory
work was performed only on bathtubs and flat specimens provided by industry through
appropriate arrangements with the Building Research Advisory Board. Field inspection
trips were made to provide the NBS project staff with up-to-date information on certain
manufacturing processes and on installation and use problems. The complexities involved
in the selection of valid performance levels are discussed, as well as the elements of judgment
involved. A format that might be used in specifying performance is suggested for each test
procedure, and the rationale underlying each suggested format is given.
Key words: Performance characteristics ; sanitary plumbing fixtures ; test methods ;

performance level; abrasion resistance; scratch resistance; stain
resistance; cigarette burn resistance; surface-impact resistance; chemical
resistance; concentrated static-load capacity; cleanability and soilability.

1. Introduction

characteristics. The investigation as herein described was concerned mostly with the testing procedures.

1.1 Statement of the Problem The recent introduction into the market of new sanitary plumbing fixture materials, such as reinforced plastics, has emphasized the need for functional or performance criteria that would be applicable to all materials. It is probable that fixtures made of the new materials would have physical, chemical, and engineering properties different from those of the more conventional porcelain-enameled or vitreous-china fixtures. Furthermore, the more conventional fixtures may have higher levels of performance for some characteristics than are needed for satisfactory performance. Also, the tests in current use for porcelain-enameled or vitreous-china fixtures may not, in all cases, be suitable for use with a material such as a fiberglass-reinforced plastic. Obviously if meaningful performance criteria are to be developed for sanitary plumbing fixtures, not only is knowledge needed on the functional and technical performance characteristics of such fixtures, but it is also important to develop or select suitable test procedures for evaluating these

1.2 Initiation of Project Recognizing the need for establishing realistic performance requirements for plumbing fixtures, the plumbing industry and agencies of the Federal Government requested the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, through its Building Research Advisory Board, to undertake the development of the essential performance requirements and methods for their evaluation. An ad hoc committee of the Building Research Advisory Board, consisting of persons from universities, government, and industry, was appointed to plan and direct the study.

The National Bureau of Standards was requested by the Building Research Advisory Board to carry out field and laboratory investigations, and the development of test procedures for sanitary plumbing fixtures, with the principal emphasis on bathtubs. The ad hoc committee of the

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