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Dr. Muirhead has been here for many years. We will also place his biographical sketch in the record.
(The biographical sketches follow :)
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF JAMES E. Allen, Jr.
Position: Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education.
Birthplace and date: Elkins, W. Va., April 25, 1911.
Education: Davis and Elkins College, A.B.; Harvard University, M.A. and Ph. D.; Princeton University, graduate study.
Experience: Present, Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education; 1955-69, commissioner of education and president of the University of the State of New York; 1950-55, deputy commissioner of education for the State of New York; 1947-50, executive assistant to the New York State Commissioner of Education; 1946-47, consultant to the President's Commission on Higher Education; 1945-46, assistant professor of education and director of the bureau of school services at Syracuse University; 1944-45, adviser on training to the War Department, assigned to the staff of the commanding general of the 3d Air Force: 1943-44, secretary to the faculty and director of placement in the Harvard Graduate School of Education; 1941-43, associated in a research capacity with the Center for Research on Educational Administration at Harvard University; 1939 41, research associate, Princeton Surveys, Princeton University; 1934-39, held positions in the West Virginia State Education Department.
Association memberships: American Association of School Administrators; American Council on Education, Commission on Plans and Objectives for Higher Education; Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education; Council of Chief State School Officers; Hudson-Mohawk Council on World Affairs; Institute for American Strategy; Metropolitan Area Council for International Recreation, Culture and Life-Long Education; National Academy of Public Administration; National Center for School and College Television; Stanford Center for Research and Development, Stanford University, Calif.; numerous other local, State and National organizations.
Awards: Medal for Distinguished Service, Columbia University Teachers College, June 1968; honorary degrees from numerous colleges and universities. Publications: Author of State School Fiscal Policy for New Jersey"; coauthor of several monographs and reports on educational administration; contributor to numerous magazines.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF PETER P. MUIRHEAD
Position, Acting Commissioner of Education.
Birthplace and date, Ayr, Scotland, November 27, 1911.
Education, State University of New York (Albany), B.S.; University of Rochester, M.A.; Cornell University, Graduate Study; New York University, Graduate study, Syracuse University, Graduate study.
Experience: Present, acting commissioner of education; 1968-, acting deputy commissioner of education; 1965, associate commissioner for higher education; 1961-64, assistant commissioner of education (program and legislative planning); 1959-61, director, higher education programs, National Defense Education Act; 1958-59, chief, student loan program, NDEA; 1948–58, director, New York State regents examinations and scholarship programs (New York State Education Department); 1944-48, supervisor of secondary schools (New York State Education Department); 1937-44, supervising principal (Henrietta, N.Y.); 1934-37, high school history teacher (Avon, N.Y.).
Association memberships, American Society for Public Administration; Foreign Policy Association; Alexandria Council on Human Relations; Alexandria Little Theater; St. Andrews Society; University of Rochester Alumni Association. Awards, Distinguished Service Medal, DHEW 1968; Superior Service Award, April 10, 1964, for notable contributions to the development of the National Education Improvement Act and for professional and technical assistance on the significant portions of the act enacted in 1963. Under Secretary Cohen's Certificate of Appreciation, January 4, 1966, for contribution to the development of the legislative program for Health, Education, and Welfare; Outstanding Service Award, University of the State of New York (1953 and 1957); four honorary doctorate awards.
Publications, articles published in Junior College Journal, May 1961; American Council on Education, April 1962; College and University, summer 1964; Vital Speeches, volume 30, 1964; American Association of University Women, March 1966; College and University Business, June 1966.
Mr. FLOOD. Please proceed, Dr. Allen.
GENERAL STATEMENT OF COMMISSIONER-DESIGNATE
Dr. ALLEN. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, it is an honor to be present today as you open hearings on the 1970 proposed budget for the U.S. Office of Education. Although I have not yet been confirmed and sworn in, and did not have the opportunity to participate directly in the budget decisions, I welcome this opportunity to make a few remarks before you hear the testimony of Acting Commissioner Peter P. Muirhead and his colleagues.
The American education enterprise, from preschool to postgraduate school, is in a period of vigorous growth, reexamination, and development which augurs well for its future. Progress certainly has been achieved in extending better education opportunities for larger proportions of the population, and, when measured against the past, the gains which have been made are indeed enormous. But when measured against the demands of the times and the needs of the foreseeable. future, it is obvious that we have only begun.
All levels of government have contributed to the gains of recent years. Of special significance, however, has been the role of the Congress. The vast array of new legislation and the greatly increased appropriations have combined to infuse new vitality into the education system and to generate a confidence in both the will and the capability of the Nation to meet its educational responsibilities that is proving to be a powerful stimulus to educational change and improvement. Having just come from the Commissionership of Education in New York State, I can testify with gratitude to the positive effect of the many outstanding programs enacted and funded by Congress during recent years.
It is important to recognize also the greatly increased emphasis and support that have been given to education by the private sector in our society.
As I assume the Office of Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, it is my hope that working together it will be possible to develop a nationwide strategy for the improvement of education that will not only consolidate our gains but, in particular, emphasize more strongly the special role of research, planning, evaluation, and dissemination to the end that all educational progress achieved can be of direct benefit to every child and youth no matter what his condition or place of residence.
With a present in which every condition of society stresses the importance of education, and a future which sees these conditions continuously expanding the dimensions of the educational endeavor, it is clear that greatly increased effort and determination will be demanded of everyone concerned. We simply cannot afford any slackening in the momentum of the increasing support that has enabled us in the past few years to begin to make truly significant advance in realizing the promise of education, especially for those too long denied.
Mr. FLOOD. In view of the fact that Dr. Allen is very new he quite naturally and properly hesitates to make a presentation on the budget before the committee. He suggests that the Acting Commissioner of Education, Dr. Muirhead, make this presentation.
Dr. Muirhead, I see you have a statement here. How do you wish to proceed?
Mr. MUIRHEAD. If it meets with your pleasure, Mr. Chairman, I should like to read this short statement and then respond to whatever questions the committee might have.
Mr. FLOOD. Very well, we will do it that way.
GENERAL STATEMENT OF ACTING COMMISSIONER
Mr. MUIRHEAD. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, we are indeed pleased to appear before you again to testify on our fiscal year 1970 proposed budget for the Office of Education. We are also most gratified to have with us today Dr. Allen, our Assistant Secretary and Commissioner-Designate, who will be happy to join me in answering any questions you may have regarding the future directions which we envision for the Office. In the meantime, I would like to present to you an overall summary of our accomplishments during the past year and our plans for fiscal year 1970.
Our request includes $3.2 billion for about 100 individual and varied educational programs which benefit virtually every level and area of American education. We have also budgeted for several of the new education programs authorized by Congress in its last session. In addition to this appropriated amount, we must also take into account the substitution of $290 million in private funds under the interest subsidization program for higher education construction loans. This will result in a total level for new funds of $3.5 billion. It is also significant to note that these Office of Education programs provide about 6 percent of the total U.S. support for education from all sourcesFederal, State, and local.
Statistics in themselves are inadequate in describing the true impact our programs are having on the lives of millions of our citizens. Nevertheless, I would like to cite a few to illustrate this impact in a tangible way. Some nine million children from poverty areas are receiving compensatory education under title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. About one and one-half million students are able to pursue a college education through the use of Federal grants, loans, and work opportunities. Approximately 90,000 teachers and other personnel are receiving training to become more competent and effective in their fields. Over seven million persons are enrolled in federallysupported vocational education programs to obtain the skills necessary for our modern world of work. Almost 500,000 adults are receiving basic literacy training to obtain more profitable employment and participate more effectively in our society.
As impressive as these appear, much still remains to be done. Education is an ever-continuing process, and we must continue to seek ways to make it more vital and available to more of our citizens.
PROGRAMS PLANNED FOR 1970
In developing our proposed 1970 programs, we have carefully reviewed our priorities within the context of our stringent fiscal situation. Since our most urgent need is to expand and improve educational opportunities for the disadvantaged, this continues to be our highest priority. Therefore, we have stressed support for programs such as title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the Teacher Corps, aid for needy college students, vocational education, and assistance for junior colleges. In fact, our request of $1.2 billion for title I alone represents 38 percent of the total Office of Education budget. In order to emphasize these areas of special need, we are proposing to defer or decrease support in certain programs such as equipment and materials, and to encourage the use of private capital, in lieu of direct Federal grants and loans, for college facilities and student aid.
I would like to make some overall comments on our request for each of the major areas of education, and then my colleagues will present to you more detailed statements.
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
For programs aimed at the elementary and secondary school level, our request includes $1.8 billion, or 57 percent of the total budget. Increases for the programs of educationally deprived children, education for the handicapped, dropout prevention, and bilingual education would be offset by reductions in impacted area aid, equipment, and school library resources. In addition to requesting increases for title I, we are this year urging the concentration of services so that these funds may give first attention to the most disadvantaged and be directed to inner city schools in poverty areas. We have also included funds for the first full year of operations for recently enacted programs to improve education for the handicapped early childhood programs, recruitment of personnel and information dissemination, regional resource centers, and innovative deaf-blind centers. Our proposal to reduce support for Public Law 874 payments to school districts will more closely relate assistance to areas which bear the greatest burdens from Federal activities-those which serve children whose parents live on Federal property. Such families contribute least to the local tax revenues and, thus, have a larger impact on the local school system.
We are requesting $815 million, or 26 percent of our budget, to broaden the opportunities for all persons desiring a college education. The greatest portion, or $600 million, is for aid for financially needy students; the remainder is distributed among construction, personnel training, and program assistance. In the student aid area, we are proposing increases for educational opportunity grants and work-study programs, due primarily to costs for additional numbers of continuing students, as well as a reduction in direct Federal loans under the National Defense Education Act. We feel that this will be adequately compensated for since we expect that more students will take advantage of the insured loan programs as a result of the 1968 amendments which
increase the interest payments from 6 to 7 percent, thus making these loans more attractive to private lenders. In the construction area, we have recommended that, beginning in 1969, direct Federal loans be replaced by the newly authorized subsidized loan program. In fact, we have requested a supplemental appropriation for this year for interest grants to institutions which borrow funds from non-Federal sources. Our 1970 estimate would provide $290 million for this private financing which, along with our requested grants, would result in a total construction level of $333 million. Of this amount, about $220 million would be used for 4-year and graduate institutions, and $113 million would be allocated to public community colleges and technical institutes. We have also provided for funding the new programs of special services for disadvantaged students and cooperative education, as well as assuming the upward bound program which was previously funded under the Office of Economic Opportunity.
For vocational education programs, our proposal of $279.2 million represents 9 percent of our total request. As you are aware, the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 provide the opportunity for a major breakthrough in reorienting vocational education to modern manpower needs and helping to solve high unemployment among our youth from ghetto areas. We would continue the basic grants to States at about the same level while at the same time supporting a vitally needed redirection of occupational training through funding the new programs of cooperative education, inovative projects, and curriculum development, as well as emphasizing consumer education in the area of homemaking.
LIBRARIES AND COMMUNITY SERVICES
We are requesting $107.7 million, or 3 percent of our budget, for public library services, for college library resources and training, for higher education programs to help solve community problems, and for adult basic literacy training. Also included under this account for the first time is the educational broadcasting facilities program for which funds have previously been appropriated to the Secretary's Office.
Our estimate of $116 million, or 4 percent of the total, for research programs includes $25 million to establish, in partnership with State and local authorities, a network of experimental schools to test and demonstrate the concept of a community education center and other new approaches to solve educational problems. We have high hopes for these proposed schools which would utilize the latest educational innovations and developments and offer alternatives that could be adopted by local school systems. Our request also includes increases for the model school project in the District of Columbia, for the national achievement study, and for statistical surveys to provide more relevant and timely educational data. We are proposing to begin a new program of disseminating information on successful school and col