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at 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3. The amended statutory authority is set forth below:

$ 290ee 3. CONFIDENTIALITY OF PATIENT

RECORDS. (a) Disclosure authorization

Records of the identity, diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of any patient which are maintained in connection with the performance of any drug abuse prevention function conducted, regulated, or directly or indirectly assisted by any department or agency of the United States shall, except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, be confidential and be disclosed only for the purposes and under the circumstances expressly authorized under subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Purposes and circumstances of disclosure affecting consenting patient and patient regardless of consent

(1) The content of any record referred to in subsection (a) of this section may be disclosed in accordance with the prior written consent of the patient with respect to whom such record is maintained, but only to such extent, under such circumstances, and for such purposes as may be allowed under regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (g) of this section.

(2) Whether or not the patient, with respect to whom any given record referred to in subsection (a) of this section is maintained, gives his written consent, the content of such record may be disclosed as follows:

(A) To medical personnel to the extent necessary to meet a bona fide medical emergency.

(B) To qualified personnel for the purpose of conducting scientific research, management audits, financial audits, or program evaluation, but such personnel may not identify, directly or indirectly, any individual patient in any report of such research, audit, or evaluation, or otherwise disclose patient identities in any manner.

(C) If authorized by an appropriate order of a court of competent jurisdiction granted after application showing good cause therefor. In assessing good cause the court shall weigh the public interest and the need for disclosure against the injury to the patient, to the physician-patient relationship, and to the treatment services. Upon the granting of such order, the court, in determining the extent to which any disclosure of all or any part of any record is necessary, shall impose appropriate safeguards against unauthorized disclosure.

(c) Prohibition against use of record in making criminal charges or investigation of patient

Except as authorized by a court order granted under subsection (b)(2)(C) of this section, no record referred to in subsection (a) of this section may be used to initiate or substantiate any criminal charges against a

patient or to conduct any investigation of a patient.

(d) Continuing prohibition against disclosure irrespective of status as patient

The prohibitions of this section continue to apply to records concerning any individual who has been a patient, irrespective of whether or when he ceases to be a patient.

(e) Armed Forces and Veterans' Administration; interchange of records; report of suspected child abuse and neglect to State or local authorities

The prohibitions of this section do not apply to any interchange of records

(1) within the Armed Forces or witrhin those components of the Veterans' Administration furnishing health care to veterans, or

(2) between such components and the Armed Forces.

The prohibitions of this section do not apply to the reporting under State law of incidents of suspected child abuse and neglect to the appropriate State or local authorities.

(1) Penalty for first and subsequent offenses

Any person who violates any provision of this section or any regulation issued pursuant to this section shall be fined not more than $500 in the case of a first offense, and not nore than $5,000 in the case of each subsequent offense.

(g) Regulations; interagency consultations; definitions, safeguards, and procedures, including procedures and criteria for issuance and scope of orders

Except as provided in subsection (h) of this section, the Secretary, after consultation with the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs and the heads of other Federal departments and agencies substantially affected thereby, shall prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this section. These regulations may contain such definitions, and may provide for such safeguards and procedures, including procedures and criteria for the issuance and scope of orders under subsection (b)(2)(C) of this section, as in the judgment of the Secretary are necessary or proper to effectuate the purposes of this section, to prevent circumvention or evasion thereof, or to facilitate compliance therewith. (Subsection (h) was superseded by section 111(c)(3) of Pub. L. 94-581. The responsibility of the Administrator of Veterans Affairs to write regulations to provide for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records under Title 38 was moved from 21 U.S.C. 1175 to 38 U.S.C. 4134.)

$ 2.2 Statutory authority for confiden

tiality of alcohol abuse patient

records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of alcohol abuse patient records were initially authorized by section 333 of the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. 4582). The section as amended was transferred by Pub. L. 98–24 to section 523 of the Public Health Service Act which is codified at 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3. The amended statutory authority is set forth below:

8 290dd-3. CONFIDENTIALITY OF PATIENT

RECORDS (a) Disclosure authorization

Records of the identity, diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of any patient which are maintained in connection with the performance of any program or activity relating to alcoholism or alcohol abuse education, training, treatment, rehabilitation, or research, which is conducted, regulated, or directly or indirectly assisted by any department or agency of the United States shall, except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, be confidential and be disclosed only for the purposes and under the circumstances expressly authorized under subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Purposes and circumstances of disclosure affecting consenting patient and patient regardless of consent

(1) The content of any record referred to in subsection (a) of this section may be disclosed in accordance with the prior written consent of the patient with respect to whom such record is maintained, but only to such extent, under such circumstances, and for such purposes as may be allowed under regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (g) of this section.

(2) Whether or not the patient, with respect to whom any given record referred to in subsection (a) of this section is maintained, gives his written consent, the content of such record may be disclosed as follows:

(A) To medical personnel to the extent necessary to meet a bona fide medical emergency.

(B) To qualified personnel for the purpose of conducting scientific research, management audits, financial audits, or program evaluation, but such personnel may not identify, directly or indirectly, any individual patient in any report of such research, audit, or evaluation, or otherwise disclose patient identities in any manner.

(C) If authorized by an appropriate order of a court of competent jurisdiction granted after application showing good cause therefor. In assessing good cause the court shall weigh the public interest and the need for disclosure against the injury to the patient, to the physician-patient relationship, and to

the treatment services. Upon the granting of such order, the court, in determining the extent to which any disclosure of all or any part of any record is necessary, shall impose appropriate safeguards against unauthorized disclosure.

(c) Prohibition against use of record in making criminal charges or investigation of patient

Except as authorized by a court order granted under subsection (b)(2)(C) of this section, no record referred to in subsection (a) of this section may be used to initiate or substantiate any criminal charges against a patient or to conduct any investigation of a patient.

(d) Continuing prohibition against disclosure irrespective of status as patient

The prohibitions of this section continue to apply to records concerning any individual who has been a patient, irrespective of whether or when he ceases to be a patient.

(e) Armed Forces and Veterans' Administration; interchange of record of suspected child abuse and neglect to State or local authorities

The prohibitions of this section do not apply to any interchange of records

(1) within the Armed Forces or within those components of the Veterans Administration furnishing health care to veterans, or

(2) between such components and the Armed Forces. The prohibitions of this section do not apply to the reporting under State law of incidents of suspected child abuse and neglect to the appropriate State or local authorities.

(f) Penalty for first and subsequent offenses

Any person who violates any provision of this section or any regulation issued pursuant to this section shall be fined not more than $500 in the case of a first offense, and not more than $5,000 in the case of each subsequent offense.

(g) Regulations of Secretary, definitions, safeguards, and procedures, including procedures and criteria for issuance and scope of orders

Except as provided in subsection (h) of this section, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this section. These regulations may contain such definitions, and may provide for such safeguards and procedures, including procedures and criteria for the issuance and scope of orders under subsection(b)(2)(C) of this section, as in the judgment of the Secretary are necessary or proper to effectuate the purposes of this section, to prevent circumvention or evasion thereof, or to facilitate compliance therewith. (Subsection (h) was superseded by section 111(c)(4) of Pub. L. 94-581. The responsibility of the Administrator of Veterans Affairs to write regulations to provide for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records under Title 38 was moved from 42 U.S.C. 4582 to 38 U.S.C. 4134.)

$ 2.4 Criminal penalty for violation.

Under 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f) and 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(1), any person who violates any provision of those statutes or these regulations shall be fined not more than $500 in the case of a first offense, and not more than $5,000 in the case of each subsequent offense.

$2.3 Purpose and effect.

(a) Purpose. Under the statutory provisions quoted in $$2.1 and 2.2, these regulations impose restrictions upon the disclosure and use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify:

(1) Definitions, applicability, and general restrictions in subpart B (definitions applicable to $2.34 only appear in that section);

(2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart

$ 2.5 Reports of violations.

(a) The report of any violation of these regulations may be directed to the United States Attorney for the judicial district in which the violation occurs.

(b) The report of any violation of these regulations by a methadone program may be directed to the Regional Offices of the Food and Drug Administration.

C;

Subpart B-General Provisions

use

of a

(3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing court order in subpart D; and

(4) Disclosures and uses of patient records which may be made with an authorizing court order and the procedures and criteria for the entry and scope of those orders in subpart E.

(b) Effect. (1) These regulations prohibit the disclosure and use of patient records unless certain circumstances exist. If any circumstances exists under which disclosure is permitted, that circumstance acts to remove the prohibition on disclosure but it does not compel disclosure. Thus, the regulations do not require disclosure under any circumstances.

(2) These regulations are not intended to direct the manner in which substantive functions such as research, treatment, and evaluation are carried out. They are intended to insure that an alcohol or drug abuse patient in a federally assisted alcohol or drug abuse program is not made more vulnerable by reason of the availability of his or her patient record than an individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment.

(3) Because there is a criminal penalty (a fine-see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(1), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the regulations, they are to be construed strictly in favor of the potential violator in the same manner as a criminal statute (see M. Kraus & Brothers v. United States, 327 U.S. 614, 621-22, 66 S. Ct. 705, 707–08 (1946)).

$2.11 Definitions.

For purposes of these regulations:

Alcohol abuse means the use of an alcoholic beverage which impairs the physical, mental, emotional, or social well-being of the user. Drug abuse

means the psychoactive substance for other than medicinal purposes which impairs the physical, mental, emotional, or social well-being of the user.

Diagnosis means any reference to an individual's alcohol or drug abuse or to a condition which is identified as having been caused by that abuse which is made for the purpose of treatment or referral for treatment.

Disclose or disclosure means a communication of patient indentifying information, the affirmative verification of another person's communication of patient identifying information, or the communication of any information from the record of a patient who has been identified.

Informant means an individual:

(a) Who is a patient or employee of a program or who becomes a patient or employee of a program at the request of a law enforcement agency or official: and

(b) Who at the request of a law enforcement agency or official observes one or more patients or employees of the program for the purpose of reporting the information obtained to the law enforcement agency or official.

Patient means any individual who has applied for or been given diagnosis or treatment for alcohol or drug abuse at a federally assisted program and includes any individual who, after arrest on a criminal charge, is identified as an alcohol or drug abuser in order to determine that individual's eligibility to participate in a program.

Patient identifying information means the name, address, social security number, fingerprints, photograph, or similar information by which the identity of a patient can be determined with reasonable accuracy and speed either directly or by reference to other publicly available information. The term does not include a number assigned to a patient by a program, if that number does not consist of, or contain numbers (such as a social security, or driver's license number) which could be used to identify a patient with reasonable accuracy and speed from sources external to the program.

Person means an individual, partnership, corporation, Federal, State or local government agency, or any other legal entity.

Program means:

(a) An individual or entity (other than a general medical care facility) who holds itself out as providing, and provides, alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment or referral for treatment; or

(b) An identified unit within a general medical facility which holds itself out as providing, and provides, alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment or referral for treatment; or

(c) Medical personnel or other staff in a general medical care facility whose primary function is the provision of alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment or referral for treatment and who are identified as such providers. (See $2.12(e)(1) for examples.)

Program director means:

(a) In the case of a program which is an individual, that individual:

(b) In the case of a program which is an organization, the individual designated as director, managing director, or otherwise vested with authority to

act as chief executive of the organization.

Qualified service organization means a person which:

(a) Provides services to a program, such as data processing, bill collecting, dosage preparation, laboratory analyses, or legal, medical, accounting, or other professional services, or services to prevent or treat child abuse or neglect, including training on nutrition and child care and individual and group therapy, and

(b) Has entered into a written agreement with a program under which that person:

(1) Acknowledges that in receiving, storing, processing or otherwise dealing with any patient records from the progams, it is fully bound by these regulations; and

(2) If necessary, will resist in judicial proceedings any efforts to obtain access to patient records except as permitted by these regulations.

Records means any information, whether recorded or not, relating to a patient received or acquired by a federally assisted alcohol or drug program.

Third party payer means a person who pays, or agrees to pay, for diagnosis or treatment furnished to a patient on the basis of a contractual relationship with the patient or a member of his family or on the basis of the patient's eligibility for Federal, State, or local governmental benefits.

Treatment means the management and care of a patient suffering from alcohol or drug abuse, a condition which is identified as having been caused by that abuse, or both, in order to reduce or eliminate the adverse effects upon the patient.

Undercover agent means an officer of any Federal, State, or local law enforcement agency who enrolls in or becomes an employee of a program for the purpose of investigating a pected violation of law or who pursues that purpose after enrolling or becoming employed for other purposes. (52 FR 21809, June 9, 1987, as amended by 60 FR 22297, May 5, 1995)

sus

$2.12 Applicability.

(a) General-(1) Restrictions on disclosure. The restrictions on disclosure in

or

these regulations apply to any information, whether not recorded, which:

(i) Would identify a patient as an alcohol or drug abuser either directly, by reference to other publicly available information, or through verification of such an identification by another person; and

(ii) Is drug abuse information obtained by a federally assisted drug abuse program after March 20, 1972, or is alcohol abuse information obtained by a federally assisted alcohol abuse program after May 13, 1974 (or if obtained before the pertinent date, is maintained by a federally assisted alcohol or drug abuse program after that date as part of an ongoing treatment episode which extends past that date) for the purpose of treating alcohol or drug abuse, making a diagnosis for that treatment, or making a referral for that treatment.

(2) Restriction on use. The restriction on use of information to initiate or substantiate any criminal charges against a patient or to conduct any criminal investigation of a patient (42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(c), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(c)) applies to any information, whether or not recorded which is drug abuse information obtained by a federally assisted drug abuse program after March 20, 1972, or is alcohol abuse information obtained by a federally assisted alcohol abuse program after May 13, 1974 (or if obtained before the pertinent date, is maintained by a federally assisted alcohol or drug abuse program after that date as part of an ongoing treatment episode which extends past that date), for the purpose of treating alcohol or drug abuse, making a diagnosis for the treatment, or making a referral for the treatment.

(b) Federal assistance. An alcohol abuse or drug abuse program is considered to be federally assisted if:

(1) It is conducted in whole or in part, whether directly or by contract or otherwise by any department or agency of the United States (but see paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section relating to the Veterans' Administration and the Armed Forces);

(2) It is being carried out under a license, certification, registration, or other authorization granted by any de

partment or agency of the United States including but not limited to:

(i) Certification of provider status under the Medicare program;

(ii) Authorization to conduct methadone maintenance treatment (see 21 CFR 291.505); or

(iii) Registration to dispense a substance under the Controlled Substances Act to the extent the controlled substance is used in the treatment of alcohol or drug abuse;

(3) It is supported by funds provided by any department or agency of the United States by being:

(i) A recipient of Federal financial assistance in any form, including financial assistance which does not directly pay for the alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral activities; or

(ii) Conducted by a State or local government unit which, through general or special revenue sharing or other forms of assistance, receives Federal funds which could be (but are not necessarily) spent for the alcohol or drug abuse program; or

(4) It is assisted by the Internal Revenue Service of the Department of the Treasury through the allowance of income tax deductions for contributions to the program or through the granting of tax exempt status to the program.

(c) Exceptions—(1) Veterans' Administration. These regulations do not apply to information on alcohol and drug abuse patients maintained in connection with the Veterans' Administration provisions of hospital care, nursing home care, domiciliary care, and medical services under title 38, United States Code. Those records are governed by 38 U.S.C. 4132 and regulations issued under that authority by the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs.

(2) Armed Forces. These regulations apply to any information described in paragraph (a) of this section which was obtained by any component of the Armed Forces during a period when the patient was subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice except:

(i) Any interchange of that information within the Armed Forces; and

(ii) Any interchange of that information between the Armed Forces and

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