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Senate Report 719-

Testimony of—

Allen, Hon. John J., Jr., Under Secretary of Commerce for Trans-
portation, as read by Rear Adm. H. Arnold Karo..
Grubb, R. C., Assistant Chief, Weather Bureau for Administration__
Karo, Rear Adm. H. Arnold, Director, Coast and Geodetic Survey-
Munson, Henry G., captain, USN, Hydrographer of the Navy and
hydrographer in command of the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office
in Oceanography..

Revelle, Dr. Roger, National Academy of Sciences, National Research
Council, Committee on Oceanography...

Additional information-

American Legion, letter, January 22, 1960, re 1959 National Con-
vention...

Bonner, Hon. Herbert C., letter in reply to Dr. Harrison Brown,
Chairman, Committee on Oceonography, National Academy of
Sciences, re S. 2482_

Department of the Navy, letter, August 12, 1959, signed, "R. L. Kibbe,
Captain," with enclosed memorandum, re S. 2482.

Statement of purpose and need...

Statement in support of proposed legislation to remove geographical

limitations on activities of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, etc..

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OCEANOGRAPHY

FRIDAY, JANUARY 22, 1960

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

SPECIAL SUBCOMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE

COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES,

Washington, D.C.

The subcommittee met at 10 a.m., pursuant to notice, in room 219, Old House Office Building, Hon. George P. Miller (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Representatives Miller, Dingell, Oliver, Pelly, and Curtin. Present also: John M. Drewry, counsel; Paul S. Bauer, consultant to the subcommittee; and Bernard M. Winfield, clerk. Mr. MILLER. The meeting will come to order.

The meeting this morning is for the purpose of hearing testimony on S. 2482, a bill to remove the geographical limitation on activities of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and S. 2483, a bill to provide flexibility in the performance of certain functions of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Weather Bureau.

(S. 2482 and S. 2483 and reports follow:)

[S. 2482, 86th Cong., 1st sess.]

AN ACT To remove geographical limitations on activities of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and for other purposes

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Act of August 6, 1947 (ch. 504, 61 Stat. 787; 33 U.S.C. 883a-8831), is amended by adding at the end thereof a new section reading as follows:

"SEC. 11. The Secretary of Commerce may conduct activities authorized by this Act without regard to the geographical limitations set forth herein in connection with projects designated as essential to the national interest by the head of an executive department or agency."

Passed the Senate August 19 (legislative day, August 18), 1959.
Attest:

FELTON M. JOHNSTON, Secretary.

[S. Rept. No. 726, 86th Cong., 1st sess.]

TO REMOVE GEOGRAPHICAL LIMITATIONS ON ACTIVITIES OF THE COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

The Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, to whom was referred the bill (S. 2482) to remove geographical limitations on activities of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and for other purposes, having considered the same, report favorably thereon and recommend that the bill do pass.

1

PURPOSE OF THE BILL

This bill is designed to remove present uncertainty as to the extent of possible offshore activities by the Coast and Geodetic Survey by adding a new section 11 to the act of August 6, 1947 (ch. 504, 61 Stat. 787; 33 U.S.C. 883a-883i) to provide that the Secretary of Commerce may conduct activities authorized by the act without regard to the geographical limitations set forth therein, in connection with projects designated as essential to the national interest by the head of an executive department or agency.

NEED FOR THE LEGISLATION

The intensive development of research programs in many fields of scientific endeavor in connection with military activities, particularly with regard to the exploration of outer space; and the pressing need for expanded knowledge of the oceans' depths for submarine operation and defense as well as for possible new sources of food and mineral resources, have laid greatly increased demands upon the Coast and Geodetic Survey which are certain to multiply as the years go by.

In scientific fields that have taken on new and vital significance, such as oceanography, geodesy, seismology, magnetism and the like, the scientific competence and experience of the Survey personnel must be utilized to the fullest in the interest of survival. That this may be made possible is the primary purpose of this bill.

Under the act of August 6, 1947, basic authority is provided for activities of the Survey which cover a wide field-hydrographic and topographic surveys of coastal water and land areas, tide and current observations, surveys for aeronautical charts, geophysical measurements, geomagnetic data, etc., etc. However, it is prescribed by statute that these activities be conducted

"in the United States, its territories, and possessions" while surveys may also be made "of offlying islands, banks, shoals, and other offshore islands."

That such limited statutory authority for operation of this most important research organization is dangerously inadequate becomes self-evident when the tremendously expanded operations of Russia and other nations in the various research areas are considered.

As a nation we have been remiss in seeking out data concerning outer space and the underwater areas that now loom so large in military thinking, as well as concerning the frozen wastes of the north where Russia has been actively exploring for years. Fortunately, however, our scientists have been awake to the needs for vastly accelerated research activities, and have on their own initiative assembled a great deal of information as to what must be done to try to close the gap between our knowledge of nature's forces and resources and the far more thorough understanding of such matters by competing nations.

The Committee on Oceanography, composed of eminent scientists from oceanographic institutions and universities, is greatly concerned over our Nation's deficiency in studies of the oceans. Likewise, launching of Sputnik I by the Russians was a shocking reminder to us that we had not pursued our own space program with necessary vigor and appreciation of the need for such vigor.

Our national funds expended in research on outer space and underwater exploration have almost infinitesimal compared to what these scientists and some in Government know that they should have been. Crying "Russia, Russia" must become tiresome to our people at times, but it is certainly no secret now that Russia has far exceeded any efforts of this country to explore and chart the waters of the North Pacific, for instance, as well as the entire Arctic area. Our security in the years ahead may depend to large extent upon our ability to defend against long-range-missile submarines lying off our shores, but we have little knowledge of the Continental Shelf and adjacent depths on which to base such defense. Attack may come over the frozen north, but here again our data are negligible.

The recent recommendation by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council that the Coast and Geodetic Survey be responsible for half of the deep-ocean surveys in connection with their proposed oceanographic program has pointed up the doubt as to whether present statutes would authorize such participation by the Survey in the program. Because of this uncertainty the Survey in the past has had to depend upon other sources for much of the data, measurements, etc., made outside the United States, its territories, and possessions.

On the economics side, our fisheries are in desperate circumstances, while Russia and Japan have taken command of the vast fishery resources of the Pacific. They know more about the fisheries than we do, and their fishery fleets are far ahead of ours in size and functional design.

The Coast and Geodetic Survey must play a leading part in the expanded research operations which experts in various scientific fields have declared to be essential. To do so it must be released from the statutory geographical shackles that now restrict its activities.

The Defense Department, in its report on S. 2482, dated August 12, opposed enactment on the ground of possible duplication or overlapping of efforts in areas where Defense research and exploration facilities have been working. Your committee gave very careful consideration to the Navy's opposition to the bill, but came to the conclusion that the Coast and Geodetic Survey is peculiarly fitted to take over a much larger share of the work than is now possible under existing law. It should be noted that the Bureau of the Budget had no objection to the submission of the legislation to the Congress. On the other hand, there is no notation on the report of the Navy, as to the Bureau's position with respect thereto. Further, we are confident the Department of Defense and Commerce will be able to properly cooperate in this highly important field. Reports of the interested Government departments and agencies follow: THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, Washington, D.C., August 3, 1959.

Hon. RICHARD M. NIXON,
President of the Senate,

U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: There are attached four copies of a proposed bill to provide flexibility in the performance of certain functions of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and of the Weather Bureau.

There are also attached four copies of a statement of purpose and need for the proposed bill.

We are advised by the Bureau of the Budget that it would interpose no objection to the submission of this proposed legislation.

Sincerely yours,

FREDERICK H. MUELLER, Acting Secretary of Commerce.

"A BILL To remove geographical limitations on activities of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and for other purposes

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, That the Act of August 6, 1947 (ch. 504, 61 Stat. 787, 33 U.S.C. 883a-8831) is amended by adding at the end thereof, a new section reading as follows:

"SEC. 11. The Secretary of Commerce may conduct activities authorized by this Act without regard to the geographical limitations set forth herein in connection with projects designated as essential to the national interest by the head of an Executive Department or Agency."

STATEMENT IN SUPPORT OF PROPOSED LEGISLATION TO REMOVE GEOGRAPHICAL LIMITATIONS ON ACTIVITIES OF THE Coast and GEODETIC SURVEY AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

The act of August 6, 1947, which provides basic authority for the activities of the Coast and Geodetic Survey authorizes surveys, observations, measurements, and charting activities in "the United States, its Territories and possessions." The purpose of the proposed legislation is to clarify ambiguous language in the act of August 6, 1947, and to provide statutory authority for the Secretary of Commerce to conduct activities listed in that act without regard to the geographical limitations set forth therein in connection with projects designated essential to the national interest by the head of an executive department or agency.

The rapid development of the exploration of outer space, the impelling need for increasing our knowledge of the oceans, and the increasing range of scientific investigation and study generally require, for maximum effectiveness, the gathering of increasingly detailed and more widespread geophysical data, which in

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